The Annals of The World
by Rev. James Ussher.

Revised by Larry & Marion Pierce.

This revised work is dedicated to Robert Huschka who enthusiastically taught me ancient history in Grade 11 and Walter Eifert who taught me Latin for five years in high school.
... Larry Pierce

Copyright (c) 1998, Larry Pierce
Winterbourne, Ontario
N0B 2V0

The Epistle to the Reader

Censorinus, in his little book, the "Explication of Times Intervals", written to Q. Cerellius on his birthday, wrote in the preface of it.

``If the origin of the world had been known to man, I would have started there.'' (Consor. in c. 20.)

And a little later, speaking of this time:

``Whether time had a beginning or whether it always was, the exact number of years cannot be known.'' (Consor. in c. 21.)

Therefore Ptolemy, from "Astronomical Supputations", concerning the creation and history of the world states that it is beyond the knowledge of man.

``To find the details of the history of the whole world or such an immense period of times, I think it is beyond us that desire to learn and know the truth.'' (Ptolem. l. 3.)

Julius Firmius Maternus in his discourse of history, that "Geniture of the World", received from Esculapius and Anubius.

``That was not the creation of the world. Nor, indeed, had the world any certain day for its beginning. Nor was there anything existing at the time when the world was formed by the wisdom of the Divine Understanding and Provident Deity. Nor could man in his human frailty so far extend itself, that it could conceive or unfold, easily the world's origin.'' (Jul. Firm. Mattes. l. 3. c. 2.)

It is not strange that the heathens who are totally ignorant of the Holy Bible, should despair of ever attaining the knowledge of the world's beginnings. Even among Christians, that most renowned chronographer Dionysius Petavius when asked his opinion concerning the creation of the world and the number of years from creation down to us, made this disclaimer:

``That the number of years from the beginning of the world to our time, cannot be known nor in any way found out without Divine Revelation.'' (Petav. de Doctrina Temporum, l. 9. c. 2.)

Philastrius Brixiensis disagreed with him and called it heresy:

``to know the number of the years from the creation of the world is uncertain and men do not know the time.'' (Philast. De Heres. ib. c. 6. p. 63.)

Lactantius Sirmianus, made this bold assertion in his "Divine Institutions":

``We who are trained by the Holy Scriptures to the knowledge of truth, do know both the beginning and end of the world.'' (Lastant. l. 7. c. 14.)

For whatever may have happened in the past, we are taught that:

``The Father has reserved the knowledge of things future to himself. Nor is there any mortal to whom the whole period of time is known. (ib. Nicol. Lyranius.) Even the son of Sirach is thought to say. "The sands of the sea, the drops of rain and the days of the world, who can number?"'' /APC Sir 1:28

When Lyranus is thought to have been speaking of history, (when as others interpret it here and in Chap. XVIII. 11. of his "Days of Eternity") draws this erroneous conclusion. He thinks that from the beginning of the world, time was never by any man determined "certainly" and "precisely".

The first Christian writer, (that I have known of) who attempted from the Holy Bible to calculate the age of the world, was Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch. Concerning this whole account, he states:

``All times and years are made known to them who are willing to obey the truth'' (Theoph. ad Autolyc. l. 3.)

But concerning the exactness of this calculation he later states:

``And haply we may not be able to give an exact account of every year, because in the Holy Scriptures there is no mention of the precise number of months and days''

For the Scripture normally notes only entire years and not the days and months in each instance. Hence summing the years may give an inaccurate total because the partial years were not included.

But granting this one thing, (and this is a most reasonable assumption) that the Holy Writers had this purpose in noting the years of the world in their various places with such diligence. They sought to reveal to us the history of the world that otherwise, no one could know. This, I say, being granted, we affirm that the Holy Spirit has anticipated this doubt. He has started and ended each of the periods, on which a series of time depends and added the very month and day. For example, the Israelites left Egypt on the 15th day of the first month. Nu 33:3. In the 480th year after their exodus, in the second month on the second day, Solomon began to build the temple. 1Ki 6:1. The months and days given for the start and end of the period show that 11 months and 14 days are to be taken away. The period is not 480 whole years, but only 479 years and 16 days. 2Ch 3:2

``Those who promise to give us an exact astronomical table of time, from the creation to Christ, seem to me more worthy of encouragement than praise in that they attempt a thing beyond human capacity.''

Thus states David Paraeus, who, among the most recent of our writers, calculated the number the years to Christ's time from the Holy Scriptures. Therefore he says, abandoning astronomical calculations, he used the civil time of the Hebrews, Egyptians and Persians as the only way to do this accurately.

But if I have any understanding in this matter, it does not matter what rule we use to measure the passing of time, as long as it starts and ends with a certain number of days. Anyone could with D. Paraeus, by some equal measure of years, define the time between the foundation of the world and Christ's time. Also it would be very easy without the help of any astronomical table, to set down how many years happened during that interval. The passing of time in any civil year from a season to the same season again is simply a natural astronomical or tropical year.

Anyone can do this who is well versed in the knowledge of sacred and profane history, of astronomical calculations and of the old Hebrew calendar. If he should apply himself to these difficult studies, it is not impossible for him to determine not only the number of years but even the days from the creation of the world. Using backward calculations, Basil the great, told us we may determine the first day of the world.

``You may indeed learn the very time when the foundation of the world was laid. If you return from this time to former ages, you may endeavour studiously to determine the day of the world's origin. Hence you will find when time began.'' {Basil. in Hexamer. Homil. 1.}

The nations in various ages used different methods of calculating time and years. It is necessary that some common and known standard be used to which these may be reconciled. The Julian years and months are most suitable to the common collation of times. These start on midnight, January 1, A.D. Using three cycles, every year is uniquely identified. For example, the Roman indiction {a} of 15 years, the cycle of the moon {b}, or golden number of 19 and the solar cycle {c} (the index of Sunday or Paschal days) containing the period of 28 years. It is known that the year 1650 A.D. is identified with the numbers of 3 in the Roman indiction {a}, 17 in the lunar cycle and 7 in the solar cycle. (I do not say that of the year of the birth of Christ, which is still disputed among the learned.)

Since our Christian period comes long after the creation of the world, counting years backward is difficult and error prone. There is a better way. Modern chronologers have extrapolated these three cycles backward to the year when all the cycles would start at 1 on January first. This creates an artificial epoch of length 7980 years based on the product of the three cycles multiplied together.
Lunar Cycle 19 Years
Solar Cycle 28 Years
Years of Interdiction 15 Years
Total 19 times 28 times 15 = 7980 Years

I think this was first noted by Robert Lotharing, Bishop of Hereford, in England. 500 years later Joseph Scaliger adapted this to chronological use and called it by the name of the Julian Period, because it extended the cycle of Julian years back in time and forward. The cycle starts at noon, January 1, 4713 BC. and is a leap year. Here the lunar cycle is 1, the Solar cycle is 1 and the Interdiction cycle is also 1. Hence 1 AD is the year 4714 of the Julian period and is identified by the Roman Indiction of 4, lunar cycle of 2, solar cycle of 10.

Moreover we find that the years of our forefathers, the years of the ancient Egyptians and Hebrews were the same length as the Julian Year. It consisted of 12 months containing 30 days. (It cannot be proved that the Hebrews used lunar months before the Babylonian captivity.) 5 days were added to the 12th month each year. Every 4 years, 6 days were added to the 12th month. I have noted the continual passing of these years, as set forth in the Bible. Hence the end of Nebuchadnezzar's reign and the beginning of his son Evilmerodach's reign was in the 3442 year of the world. (3442 AM) By collation of Chaldean history and the astronomical cannon it was in the 85 year of Nabonasar. This was 562 BC. or 4152 JP. (Julian Period) From this I deduce that the creation of the world happened in the beginning of the autumn of 710 JP. {d} Using astronomical tables, I determined the first Sunday after the autumnal equinox for the year 710 JP which was October 23 of that year. I ignored the stopping of the sun, in the days of Joshua and the going back of it in the days of Hezekiah. (See the notes in my Annals for 2553 AM and 3291 AM) From thence I concluded, that from the preceding evening of October 23, marks the first day of creation and the start of time.

I ignored the difficulties raised by chronologers who are occupied by the love of contention, as Basil notes. Hence I deduce that the time from the creation until midnight, January 1, 1 AD. was 4003 years, 70 days, 6 hours. Also based on the death of Herod I conclude that the birth of our Saviour was four full years before January 1, 1 AD. According to our calculations, the building of Solomon's temple was finished in the 3000th year of the world. In the 4000th year of the world, Mary gave birth to Christ Lu 2:6 (of whom the temple was a type). Joh 2:21 Hence Christ was born in 4 BC. not 1 AD. {e}

But these things, (which I note at the present) God willing, shall be more fully explained in our "Sacred Chronology". This I intend to write with a "Treatise of the Primitive Years" and the "Calendar of the Ancient Hebrews". In the meantime I thought it best to publish the "Annals of the Old Testament". Based on this foundation, I included a chronicle of all foreign affairs that happened in Asia and Egypt. These include events before the beginning of the Olympiads and matters relating to Greece and Rome and other areas.

In doing the sacred history, I have followed the translation of Janius and Tremellius, using their Hebraism's and the information from their work. In doing the secular history, I have noted the writings of their ancient authors or the best translation from the Greek of their works. In particular I used James Dalechamp translation in Athenaeus. Although in noting the chapters I observed the edition of "Natalis Comes". From these I have written this history using material from Codomanes, Capellas Emmias, Pezelius, Eberus, Salianus, or any other chronologer, which I had. However, I always referred to the original authors and did most of my work directly from their writings and not second hand sources. Since my purpose was to create an accurate chronology, I may not have followed the exact wording of these writers in every case, but I have preserved the intent of their writings.

Of the many historians, who lived before Julius Caesar, the passing of time leaves only four of note: Herodotus, Thucidides, Xenophon and Polibius. The last one is poor and inaccurate in many places. These I esteemed the most authentic for their antiquity. I used them to correct the frequent errors in chronology of Diodorus Siculus. However in matters that related to Alexander the Great, they are silent. For this period, I also followed not only Diodorus but Curtius and Arrian to try to determine the history of that period.

I used the following abbreviations:
AD Years from the start of the Christian era.
AM Year of the World from creation.
BC Years before the Christian era.
JP Julian Year starting at January 1, 4713 BC.
NKNorthern Kingdom of Israel.
SKSouthern Kingdom of Israel.

After the time denoted by AM, one of four letters may be affixed.
a Autumn
b Winter
c Spring
d Summer

Other things the prudent reader will figure out for himself. I wish you the enjoyment of these endeavours and bid you farewell.

London, July 13, 1650 AD.

Rev. James Ussher

Explanatory Notes by Editor

{a} Dictionary Definition of "Roman Indiction."

In chronology, a cycle of fifteen years instituted by Constantine the Great; originally, a period of taxation. Constantine having reduced the time which the Romans were obliged to serve in the army to fifteen years, imposed a tax or tribute at the end of the term, to pay the troops' discharged. This practice introduced the keeping of accounts by this period. But, as it is said, in honour of the great victory of Constantine over Mezentius, Sept. 24, A.D. 312, by which Christianity was more firmly established, the council of Nice ordained that accounts of years should no more be kept by Olymiads, but that the "indiction" should be used as the point from which to reckon the date years. This was begun Jan. 1, A.D. 313. "Johnson. Encyc."

Taken from the definition of "Indiction" in "Noah Webster's First Edition of an American Dictionary of the English Language", Published 1989, by "Foundation for American Christian Education", California. (Dictionary was first published in 1828.)

{b} Lunar Cycle

The lunar cycle consists of 19 years or 235 complete orbits of the moon around the earth. This differs from 19 years of 365.25 days each by approximately one and an half hours. On the first year of the next cycle of 19 years, the new moon would again be on January 1.

{c} Solar Cycle

The solar cycle consists of 28 years. At the start of each new cycle every day and month of the year would correspond exactly to the days and months of the first year of the previous cycle.

{d} Time of Creation

Since the Jews used to start their year in the autumn, this is not an unreasonable assumption. Also the biblical pattern of "evening and morning" seems to apply to year as well as days. First the dark months of autumn and winter and then the bright months of spring and summer. This also fits the biblical pattern in spiritual matters too. For the saint, his worst lot in life comes first followed by an eternal day of happiness in Christ. The best wine comes last. Joh 2:10 See Spurgeon's Sermon No. 225, "Satan's Banquet" and No. 226, "The Feast of the Lord".

{e} The Christian Era

The Christian Era should properly began with the year Christ was born; and in devising it, the intention was to have it begin with that year. By the "Christian Era" is meant the system upon which calendars are constructed and by which historical events are now dated in practically all the civilized world. But the originator of the system made a miscalculation as to the year (in the calendar then in use) in which Christ was born, as the result of which the year A.D. 1 was fixed four years too late. In other words, the Lord Jesus was four years old in the year A.D. 1.

The mistake came about in this way: The Christian Era (i.e. the scheme of dates beginning A.D. 1) was not devised until A.D. 532. Its inventor, or contriver, was a monk named Dionysius Exiguus. At that time the system of dates in common use began from the era of the emperor Diocletian, A.D. 284. Exiguus was not willing to connect his system of dates with the name of that infamous tyrant and persecutor. So he conceived the idea of connecting his system with and dating all its events from, the Incarnation of Jesus Christ. His reason for wishing to do this was, as he wrote to Bishop Petronius, "to the end that the commencement of our hope might be better known to us and that the cause of man's restoration, namely, our Redeemer's passion, might appear with clearer evidence."

For the carrying out of this excellent plan, it was necessary to fix the date of the Incarnation in the terms of the chronological systems then in vogue. The Romans dated the beginning of their history from the supposed date of the founding of the city ("ab urbe condita" or A.U.C as usually abbreviated). Dionysius Exiguus calculated that the year of our Lord's birth was A.U.C. 753. He made his equivalence of dates from Lu 3:1, "Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar" etc., at which time Christ was 30 years of age according to Lu 3:23. But it was ascertained later that a mistake of four years had been made; for it clearly appears by Mt 2:1 that Christ was born before the death of Herod, who died in 749 A.U.C. Tiberius succeeded Augustus, Aug. 19, A.U.C. 767. Hence his 15th year would be A.U.C. 779; and from those facts Dionysius was right in his calculation. But it was discovered in later years that Tiberius began to reign as colleague with Augustus four years before the latter died. Hence the 15th year mentioned by Luke was four years earlier than was supposed by Dionysius and consequently the birth of Christ was that many years earlier than the date selected by Exiguus, which date has been followed ever since. This must be allowed for in any computation of dates which involves events happening before Christ.

"The Wonders of Bible Chronology", Page 84,85, Philip Mauro, first published 1922, Reprinted by, Reiner Publications, Swengel, Pennsylvania

Philip Melanchthon:
His Narration, Concerning
Philip Prince Palatine,
to Rhenus.

I have often heard Capino relate the following when Dalburgius, the Bishop of the Vangions, Rudolphus Agricola and myself were with Philip Prince Palatine Elector. Not only in ordinary conversation but also in serious discussions about the affairs of the state, they would often bring notable examples from the Persian or Greek or Roman history. The Prince was very zealous to know more of history and he noted that the distinction of the times, nations and empires, was necessary for this. Therefore he wished them to make a chronology of the kingdoms of ancient history based on all available Hebrew, Greek and Latin authors. At that time in 1480 AD, there were no books about the ancient empires in the German language. Nor had the Latins anything of that nature, save Justin's confused Epitome, which also lacked a detailed chronology. Those learned men were delighted to compile this work. Therefore they compiled a chronology from Hebrew, Greek, and Latin monuments of the various monarchies. To this they added all the most important events in proper place and created a chronology of the nations and times. This grateful Prince read these works most earnestly and delighted in them. Also he was thankful that the times and the memory of the most important events were preserved by Divine Providence. For they showed him, how that the history of the world was continued, so that Herodatus begins his writings a little before the end of the prophetic history. For even before the end of the Persian monarchy, concerning which we have a most clear account of Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah, some of the names of the kings of Assyria and Egypt, are the same in the prophets and Herodotus. Jeremiah foretells their destruction to Apries, which also Herodotus describes. After Apries kills Jeremiah, Amasis strangles the proud king after he had captured him. The Palatine prince said he saw the witness of the Divine presence in the ordering of empires. For these empires could neither be attained nor retained by mere human power. Therefore they were created that they might be the upholders of human society, unite many nations, restore law, justice, peace and indeed, they might teach men concerning God. Therefore, he did often repeat those words of Daniel that God changes and confirms empires. He said likewise, that by the changes and punishments of tyrants, the just judgment of the Almighty was most conspicuous. By these illustrious examples, all mankind was admonished to acknowledge God and were to understand that he wills and ordains justice and is truly offended with those who transgress this his ordination. Such were the speeches of that Prince, concerning the rise and fall of empires.

The Annals of the Old Testament
from the Beginning of the World

The First Age of the World

1a AM, 710 JP, 4004 BC

1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Ge 1:1 This beginning of time, according to our chronology, happened at the start of the evening preceding the 23rd day of October in the year of the Julian calendar, 710.

2. On the first day Ge 1:1-5 of the world, on Sunday, October 23rd, God created the highest heaven and the angels. When he finished, as it were, the roof of this building, he started with the foundation of this wonderful fabric of the world. He fashioned this lower most globe, consisting of the deep and of the earth. Therefore all the choir of angels sang together and magnified his name. Job 38:7 When the earth was without form and void and darkness covered the face of the deep, God created light on the very middle of the first day. God divided this from the darkness and called the one "day" and the other "night".

3. On the second day Ge 1:6-8 (Monday, October 24th) after the firmament or heaven was finished, the waters above were separated from the waters here below enclosing the earth.

4. On the third day Ge 1:9-13 (Tuesday, October 25th) when these waters below ran together into one place, the dry land appeared. From this collection of the waters God made a sea, sending out from here the rivers, which were to return there again. Ec 1:7 He caused the earth to bud and bring forth all kinds of herbs and plants with seeds and fruits. Most importantly, he enriched the garden of Eden with plants, for among them grew the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. Ge 2:8,9

5. On the fourth day (Wednesday, October 26th) the sun, the moon and the rest of the stars were created.

6. On the fifth day (Thursday, October 27th) fish and flying birds were created and commanded to multiply and fill the sea and the earth.

7. On the sixth day (Friday, October 28th) the living creatures of the earth were created as well as the creeping creatures. Last of all, man was created after the image of God, which consisted principally in the divine knowledge of the mind, Col 3:10 in the natural and proper sanctity of his will. Eph 4:24 When all living creatures by the divine power were brought before him, Adam gave them their names. Among all of these, he found no one to help him like himself. Lest he should be destitute of a suitable companion, God took a rib out of his side while he slept and fashioned it into a woman. He gave her to him for a wife, establishing by it the law of marriage between them. He blessed them and bade them to be fruitful and multiply. God gave them dominion over all living creatures. God provided a large portion of food and sustenance for them to live on. To conclude, because sin had not yet entered into the world, God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. Ge 1:31

8. Now on the seventh day, (Saturday, October 29th) when God had finished his work which he intended, he then rested from all labour. He blessed the seventh day and ordained and consecrated the sabbath Ge 2:2,3 because he rested on it Ex 31:17 and refreshed himself. Nor as yet (for ought appears) had sin entered into the world. Nor was there any punishment given by God, either upon mankind, or upon angels. Hence is was, that this day was set forth for a sign, as well as for our sanctification in this world Ex 31:13 of that eternal sabbath, to be enjoyed in the world to come. In it we expect a full deliverance from sin and its dregs and all its punishments. Heb 4:4,9,10

9. After the first week of the world ended, it seems that God brought the newly married couple into the garden of Eden. He charged them not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil but left them free to eat of everything else.

10. The Devil envied God's honour and man's obedience. He tempted the woman to sin by the serpent. By this he got the name and title of the old serpent. Re 12:9 20:2 The woman was beguiled by the serpent and the man seduced by the woman. They broke the command of God concerning the forbidden fruit. Accordingly when sought for by God and convicted of this crime, each had their punishments imposed on them. This promise was also given that the seed of the woman should one day break the serpent's head. Christ, in the fulness of time should undo the works of the Devil. 1Jo 3:8 Ro 16:20 Adam first called her Eve because she was then ordained to be the mother, not only of all that should live this natural life, but, of those also who should live by faith in her seed. This was the promised Messiah as Sarah also later was called the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 Ga 4:31.

11. After this our first parents were clothed by God with raiment of skins. They were expelled from Eden and a fiery flaming sword set to keep the way leading to the tree of life so that they should never eat of that fruit which they had not yet touched. Ge 3:21,22 It is very probable, that Adam was turned out of paradise the same day that he was brought into it. This seems to have been on the 10th day of the world. (November 1st) On this day also, in remembrance of so remarkable an event the day of atonement was appointed Le 23:27, and the yearly fast, spoken of by Paul, Ac 27:9 termed more especially by the name of nhsteian. On this feast all, strangers as well as native Israelites, were commanded to afflict their souls that every soul which should not afflict itself upon that day should be destroyed from among his people, Le 16:29 23:29

12. After the fall of Adam, Cain was the first of all mortal men that was born of a woman. Ge 4:1

130d AM, 840 JP, 3874 BC

13. When Cain, the firstborn of all mankind, murdered Abel, God gave Eve another son called Seth. Ge 4:25 Adam had now lived 130 years. Ge 5:3 From whence it is gathered, that between the death of Abel and the birth of Seth, there was no other son born to Eve. For then, he should have been recorded to have been given her instead of him. Since man had been on the earth 128 years and Adam and Eve had other sons and daughters Ge 5:4 the number of people on the earth at the time of this murder could have been as many as 500,000. Cain might justly fear, through the conscience of his crime, that every man that met him would also slay him. Ge 4:14,15

235d AM, 945 JP, 3769 BC

14. When Seth was 105 years old, he had his son, Enos. This indicates the lamentable condition of all mankind. For even then was the worship of God wretchedly corrupted by the race of Cain. Hence it came, that men were even then so distinguished, that they who persisted in the true worship of God, were known by the name of the children of God. They who forsook him, were termed the children of men. Ge 4:26 6:1,2

325d AM, 1035 JP, 3679 BC

15. Cainan, the son of Enos was born when his father was 90 years old. Ge 5:10

395d AM, 1105 JP, 3609 BC

16. Mahalaleel was born when Cainan his father was 70 years old. Ge 5:12

460d AM, 1170 JP, 3544 BC

17. Jared was born when his father Mahalaleel was 65 years old. Ge 5:15

622d AM, 1332 JP, 3382 BC

18. Enoch was born when his father Jared was 162 years old. Ge 5:18

687d AM, 1397 JP, 3317 BC

19. Methuselah was born when Enoch his father was 65 years old. Ge 5:25

874d AM, 1584 JP, 3130 BC

20. Lamech was born when his father Methuselah was 187 years old. Ge 5:25

930d AM, 1640 JP, 3074 BC

21. Adam, the first father of all mankind, died at the age of 930 years. Ge 5:5

987d AM, 1697 JP, 3017 BC

22. Enoch, the 7th from Adam at the age of 365 years, was translated by God in an instant, while he was walking with him that he should not see death. Ge 5:23,24 Heb 11:5

1042d AM, 1752 JP, 2962 BC

23. Seth, the son of Adam died when he was 912 years old. Ge 5:8

1056d AM, 1766 JP, 2948 BC

24. Noah, the 10th from Adam, was born when his father Lamech was 182 years old. Ge 5:29

1140d AM, 1850 JP, 2864 BC

25. Enos, the 3rd from Adam, died when he was 905 years old. Ge 5:11

1235d AM, 1945 JP, 2769 BC

26. Cainan, the 4th from Adam, died when he was 910 years old. Ge 5:14

1290d AM, 2000 JP, 2714 BC

27. Mahalaleel, the 5th from Adam, died when he was 892 years old. Ge 5:17

1422d AM, 2132 JP, 2582 BC

28. Jared, the 6th from Adam, died when he was 962 years old. Ge 5:20

1536a AM, 2245 JP, 2469 BC

29. Before the deluge of waters upon the whole wicked world, God sent Noah, a preacher of righteousness to them, giving them 120 years to repent of their evil ways. 1Pe 3:20 2Pe 2:5 Ge 6:3

1556d AM, 2266 JP, 2448 BC

30. Noah was 500 years old when his 1st son, Japheth was born. Ge 5:32 10:21

1558d AM, 2268 JP, 2446 BC

31. Noah's 2nd son, Shem, was born 2 years later because 2 years after the flood, Shem was 100 years old. Ge 11:10

1651d AM, 2361 JP, 2353 BC

32. Lamech, the 9th from Adam, died when he was 777 years old. Ge 5:31

1656a AM, 2365 JP, 2349 BC

33. Methuselah, the 8th from Adam, died when he was 969 years old. He lived the longest of all men yet died before his father. Ge 5:27,24

34. Now in the 10th day of the second month of this year (Sunday, November 30th) God commanded Noah that in that week he should prepare to enter into the Ark. Meanwhile the world, totally devoid of all fear, sat eating and drinking and marrying and giving in marriage. Ge 7:1,4,10 Mt 24:38

35. In the 600th year of the life of Noah, on the 17th day of the second month, (Sunday, December 7th), he with his children and living creatures of all kinds had entered into the Ark. God sent a rain on the earth 40 days and 40 nights. The waters continued upon the earth 150 days, Ge 7:4,6,11-13,17,24.

36. The waters abated until the 17th day of the 7th month, (Wednesday, May 6th) when the ark came to rest upon one of the mountains of Ararat. Ge 8:3,4

37. The waters continued receding until on the 1st day of the 10th month (Sunday, July 19th) the tops of the mountains were seen. Ge 8:5

38. After 40 days, that is on the 11th day of the 11th month (Friday, August 28th) Noah opened the window of the ark and sent forth a raven. Ge 8:6,7

39. 7 days later, on the 18th day of the 11th month (Friday, September 4th) as may be deduced from the other 7 days mentioned in Ge 8:10, Noah sent out a dove. She returned after 7 days. 25th day of the 11th month, (Friday, September 11th) He sent her out again and about the evening she returned bringing the leaf of an olive tree in her bill. After waiting 7 days more, 2nd day of the 12th month, (Friday, September 18th) he sent the same dove out again, which never returned. Ge 8:8,12

The Second Age of the World

1657a AM, 2366 JP, 2348 BC

40. When Noah was 601 years old, on the 1st day of the 1st month (Friday, October 23rd), the 1st day of the new post-flood world, the surface of the earth was now all dry. Noah took off the covering of the ark. Ge 8:13

41. On the 27th of the 2nd month, (Thursday, December 18th) the earth was entirely dry. By the command of God, Noah went forth with all that were with him in the ark. Ge 8:14,15,19

42. When he left the ark, Noah offered to God sacrifices for his blessed preservation. God restored the nature of things destroyed by the flood. He permitted men to eat flesh for their food and gave the rainbow for a sign of the covenant which he then made with man. Ge 8:15-9:17

43. Man's lifespan was now half the length it was previously

1658d AM, 2368 JP, 2346 BC

44. Arphaxad, was born to Shem when he was 100 years old, 2 years after the flood. Ge 11:10

1693d AM, 2403 JP, 2311 BC

45. Salah was born, when his father Arphaxad was 35 years old. Ge 11:12

1723d AM, 2433 JP, 2281 BC

46. Eber was born, when Salah his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:14

1757d AM, 2467 JP, 2247 BC

47. When Eber was 34 years old, Peleg his son was born. Ge 11:16 He called him Peleg for in his days the earth was divided. Ge 10:25 1Ch 1:19 If this happened at the day of his birth, then it seems that when Peleg was born, Noah, who formerly knew all the places which were now covered with bushes and thorns, divided the land among his grandchildren. When this was done, they then went from those eastern parts (where they first went from the mountains of Ararat) into the valley of Shinar. Ge 11:2 Here the people impiously conspired as we find in the book of Wisdom /APC Wis 10:5 to hinder this dispersion of them as commanded by God and began by Noah (as may be gathered from Ge 11:4,6,8,9 compared together). They went together to build the city and tower of Babylon. God frustrated this project by the confusion of languages he sent among them. (Hence it took the name of Babel Ge 11:9). The dispersion of nations followed. Many companies and colonies settled down in various places according to their languages. The 13 sons of Joktan, the brothers of Peleg, as recorded in Ge 10:26-30 were among the captains and heads of the various companies. These brothers were not yet born when Peleg was born. Eber was only 34 years old when Peleg was born to him. Though we should suppose that Joktan was born, when Eber was only 20 years of age and that Joktan's oldest son was born to him when he was likewise 20 years old, yet still it appears, that the oldest son of Joktan must be 6 years younger than Peleg. So that at least the youngest of those 13 sons of Joktan, namely, Jobab and 3 other brothers of his are mentioned before him must be younger still. These countries rich in gold, Sheba, Ps 72:15 Ophir 1Ki 9:28 and Havilah Ge 2:11 were named after these men. These brothers could not be capable of such an expedition of leading colonies because of their youth until some years after Reu was born to Peleg.

48. Man's lifespan was now a quarter of the length it was before the flood.

1771a AM, 2480 JP, 2234 BC

49. 1903 years elapsed from this time to the capture of Babylon by Alexander the Great. This calculation and number of years was made according to astronomical observations by Porphyry, as we find in Simplicius, in his second book "de Coelo". This he affirms to have been transmitted into Greece from Babylon by Chalisthenes at Aristotle's request. From these writings it appears that the Babylonians devoted themselves to the study of astronomy, even from the very days of Nimrod, from whom all that region took the name of the land of Nimrod. Mic 5:6 Nimrod built Babylon and was the instigator of the building of the tower of Babel according to Josephus (l. 1. Antiq. c. 4.) Moses affirms that the royal seat of that kingdom was here. Ge 10:10 Nimrod made Babylon famous in those days. Jer 5:15 (See note on 3674a <<1898>>)

1787d AM, 2497 JP, 2217 BC

50. Reu or Ragau, was born when Peleg his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:18

1816d AM, 2526 JP, 2188 BC

51. Constantinus Manasses states that the Egyptian state lasted 1663 years. Counting backward from the time that Cambyses, king of Persia, conquered Egypt, leads us to this period. About this time Mizraim, the son of Ham, led his colony into Egypt. Hence Egypt was called sometimes the land of Mizraim, sometimes of Ham, Ps 105:23,27 106:21,22 From this it was that the Pharisees later boasted that they were the sons of ancient kings. /APC Es 16:11 (See note on 3479b AM <<988>>)

1819d AM, 2529 JP, 2185 BC

52. Serug or Saruch, was born when Ragau was 32 years old. Ge 11:20

1849d AM, 2559 JP, 2155 BC

53. Nachor was born when Saruch his father was 30 years old. Ge 11:22

1878d AM, 2588 JP, 2126 BC

54. Terah or Thara was born when Nachor his father was 29 years old. Ge 11:24

1915c AM, 2625 JP, 2089 BC

55. At this time Egialeus, king of the Sicyonians, in Peloponesus began his reign, 1313 years before the first olympiad. (Euseb. Chron.)

1920c AM, 2630 JP, 2084 BC

56. A people from Arabia bordering upon Egypt, called by the Egyptians Hyksos, meaning "kingly shepherds", invaded Egypt. They took Memphis and took over all of lower Egypt that bordered upon the Mediterranean Sea. Salatis, their 1st king, reigned 19 years, according to Josephus in his 1st book "cont. appiencem" as from Manetho.

1939c AM, 2649 JP, 2065 BC

57. Bnon, their 2nd king, reigned for 44 years, {*Manetho, 1:83}

1948d AM, 2658 JP, 2056 BC

58. When Terah was 70 years old, his oldest of three sons, Haran was born. Ge 11:26 Abram was not born for another 60 years as we shall see later. Haran was the father-in-law later of the 3rd brother Nachor. For this man died before his father Terah left Ur of the Chaldeans and left a daughter named Milcah, who was married to his uncle Nachor, Ge 11:28,29

1983c AM, 2693 JP, 2021 BC

59. At this time Apachnan reigned in Egypt for 36 years and 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:83}

1996d AM, 2706 JP, 2008 BC

60. Peleg the 6th from Noah, died 209 years after the birth of Ragau. Ge 11:19

1997d AM, 2707 JP, 2007 BC

61. Nachor the 9th from Noah, died 119 years after the birth of his son Terah. Ge 11:25

2006d AM, 2716 JP, 1998 BC

62. Noah, died when he had lived 950 years, 350 years after the deluge. Ge 9:28,29

2008c AM, 2718 JP, 1996 BC

63. Abram was born. He was 75 years old when Terah his father died at the age of 205 years. Ge 11:32 12:1,4 Ac 7:4

2018c AM, 2728 JP, 1986 BC

64. Sarai, who is also called Iscah the daughter of Haran, Ge 11:29,30, was born and was 10 years younger than her husband Abraham. Ge 17:17

2020b AM, 2730 JP, 1984 BC

65. Apophis reigned in Egypt for 61 years. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2026d AM, 2736 JP, 1978 BC

66. Reu or Ragau the 7th from Noah, died 207 years after the birth of Serug. Ge 11:21

2049d AM, 2759 JP, 1955 BC

67. Serug or Saruch, the 8th from Noah, died 200 years after the death of Nachor. Ge 11:23

2079b AM, 2789 JP, 1925 BC

68. About this time, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, or Elimais, situated between Persia and Babylon, conquered the kings of Pentapolis, Sodom, Gomorrah, Adma, Zeboiim and Bela, or Zoar. These served him 12 years. Ge 14:1,2,4

2081b AM, 2791 JP, 1923 BC

69. Jannas reigned in Egypt for 50 years and one month. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2083a AM, 2792 JP, 1922 BC

70. God called Abraham out of Ur, of the Chaldeans, to go into the land that he would show him. Ge 15:7 Jos 24:2,3 Ne 9:7 Ac 7:2-4. Ur was located in Mesopotamia according to Stephen the first martyr and Abarbenel. Ge 11:1-32 Ur was the city of the priests and mathematicians, who from their art, were called by the name of Chaldeans. By this name also even in Chaldea itself, those Genethliaci, or recorders of genealogies were distinguished and known from the rest of the Magi or wise men of that country, as we find in Da 2:2,10 4:7 5:11. These taught Terah and his sons idolatry. Jos 24:2 Terah therefore took Abram his son and Lot his nephew, the son of Haran and Sarai his daughter-in-law, Abram's wife, and started their journey together from Ur of the Chaldeans, to go into the land of Canaan. They came to Haran in the same country of Mesopotamia and there they stayed because of the great infirmity and sickness of Terah. Terah lived 205 years and died in Haran. Ge 11:31,32

"Georgia">They stand today as they have always stood, these Jesuits, against every principle upon which Freemasonry is founded - upon which Americanism is based.

A group of French cyclopedists,12  led by Jean Jacques Rousseau, had embodied a new concept of government, in which the central postulate was, that the only authority to govern should come from the consent of the governed. This was whipped into shape and publi