The Third Age of the World

2083 AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC

71. After Terah died who was Abram's father, God again called Abram from his own country, kindred and his father's house. A further promise and evangelical covenant of blessing was given to him. That is, in his blessed seed, our Lord Jesus Christ, all the nations of the earth would be blessed. Ge 12:1,2 Ac 7:4 From the time of the giving of this promise and Abram's immediate departure, we mark as the start of those 430 years which Abram and his posterity spent in foreign lands. Ex 12:40,41 Ga 3:17 The first and last day of this pilgrimage was on the 15th of the month Abib, which in this year was Wednesday, May 4th, according to the Julian Calendar, by our calculations.

72. Therefore, on this day, Abram when he was 75 years old, obeyed the call of God. He took Sarai his wife and Lot, his brother Haran's son, with all the substance, which he had gotten and souls which God had given him in Haran. He took his journey and at length came into the land of Canaan. He passed through it until he came to a place called Sichem, to the oak of Moreh, Ge 12:4-6 which is mentioned later in: Ge 35:4 Jos 24:25,26 Jud 9:6 Here God promised Abram that to his seed he would give that land. He built an altar to the Lord, who had appeared to him there. After leaving there, he went into the hill country, called Luz, later, known by the name of Bethel, toward the east. Ge 28:19 Here he again built an altar and called on the name of the Lord. He continued his journey and came into the south part of that country which borders Egypt. Ge 12:7-9

2084a AM, 2793 JP, 1921 BC

73. A famine caused Abram to leave there and go down into Egypt. To avoid danger, Sarah his wife said she was his sister. She was taken into Pharaoh's (Apophi) house. She returned unharmed, not long after that with many gifts and presents. They were given safe passage and allowed to depart from Egypt. Ge 12:10-20

74. Abram, with Lot returned to Canaan. The country which they chose, was not able to feed both their herds of cattle. Therefore they parted and Lot went into the country of Sodom. After his departure, the promise both of the possession of that land of Canaan and also of his numberless posterity was again renewed to him. He left that place between Bethel and Hai, where he had formerly built an altar and dwelt in the plain of Mamre near Hebron. There he built an altar to the Lord. Ge 13:4

2091 AM, 2801 JP, 1913 BC

75. Bera king of Sodom, with the rest of the petty kings of Pentapolis rebelled and shook off the yoke of Chedorlaomer king of Elam, in the 13th year of their subjection to him. Ge 14:4

2092 AM, 2802 JP, 1912 BC

76. In the 14th year Chedorlaomer, with other confederate princes, Amraphel of Shinar, Arioch of Ellasar and Tidal king of the nations, combined their forces against those petty kings who had revolted from him. They first destroyed the Raphaims, the Zuzims, the Emims and the Horites, who inhabited all that region, which afterward was possessed by the Amalekites and the Ammonites. After that, they routed the kings of Pentapolis in the valley of Siddim and carried away Lot prisoner with all the plunder of Sodom and Gomorrah. When tidings came to Abram, he armed 318 of his own servants. With his confederates Aner, Eshcol and Mamre, they overtook Chedorlaomer and his army at Dan with the prey they had gotten. There they defeated and slew them and pursued them to Hobah, on the left of Damascus. They rescued Lot and the rest of the prisoners from the enemies' hands, and brought them back again with all that they had lost. When Abram returned from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and the other kings, Melchizedek the king of Salem met him and blessed him. He was a priest of the Most High God. Abram, in return offered him the tithe of the spoil which he had taken. He kept nothing of the spoil for himself, but restored to every man his own possessions again. What was not owned he left to his troops for their service. Ge 14:1-24

77. Abram was grieved because he had no heir. Hence, God promised him a posterity equal to the stars of heaven in number. After 400 years sojourning and affliction in a land that was not theirs, God said he would bring them into the land promised to Abram and bound his word with a covenant to perform it. Ge 15:1-21

2093 AM, 2803 JP, 1911 BC

78. Sarai was longing for that blessed seed. Since ten years had passed since they came into the land of Canaan, she gave to Abram, Hagar her Egyptian servant, for a wife. Hagar conceived a child by her master Abram. She was badly treated by Sarai for her insolence. She fled from Sarai but being warned of God by his angel, she returned and submitted herself to Sarai. Ge 16:13,14

2094b AM, 2804 JP, 1910 BC

79. When Abram was 86 years old, Hagar bore him Ishmael. Ge 16:15-17 17:24,25

2096d AM, 2806 JP, 1908 BC

80. Arphaxad, the third from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Salem. Ge 11:13

2107c AM, 2817 JP, 1897 BC

81. God made a covenant with Abram, when he was now 99 years old concerning the seed of Isaac. He was to be born of Sarai about that time twelve months later. God gave him the sign of circumcision (changing both their names, Abram into Abraham and Sarai into Sarah) for a sure pledge and testimony of his promise. He promised also to favour Ishmael the firstborn, for his father's sake. These promises Abraham received and embraced with a true faith. Hence in true obedience, caused himself, being now 99 years of age and his son Ishmael then 13 years old and all his household, to be circumcised, the same day it was commanded him. Ge 17:21-26

82. Abraham invited angels, who looked like travelling men, into his house and gave them a feast. These angels reiterated the promise of the birth of Isaac for Sarah's sake. They foretold the judgment God intended upon the 5 cities, for their utter destruction. Abraham, fearing what would become of Lot and his family in Sodom, made intercession to God for the sparing of that place. Ge 18:23-33 Therefore Sodom, Gomorrah, Adamah and Zeboiim, for their horrible sins, perished by fire and brimstone that rained down upon them from heaven. Ge 19:1-29 These cities were to be an example to all wicked men in times to come, of the pains of that everlasting fire to be inflicted on them in the lake of fire and brimstone, which is the second death. 2Pe 2:6,7 Re 19:20 20:10 21:8 The monument of this remains to this day, even the Dead Sea. The valley of Siddim, where these five cities stood in former times was full of brimstone and salt pits. This has since grown into a vast lake, which from the brimstone still floating in it, is called "Laces Asphaltitis", a Lake of Brimstone and from the salt, "Mare Salsum", the Salt Sea. /APC Wis 10:6,7 Ge 14:3,10 De 3:17 29:23 Zep 2:9 Of this, Solinus thus writes:

``A great way off from Jerusalem, there lies a woeful spectacle, of a country to be seen, which was blasted from heaven and appears by the blackness of the earth falling all to cinders. There were in that place before this two cities, one called Sodom, the other Gomorrah, where if an apple grew, though it seems to have a show of maturity and ripeness, yet it is not eatable at all. The outer skin of it, contains nothing within it save a stinking smell, mingled with ashes and being never so lightly touched, sends forth a smoke and the rest falls presently into a light dust of powder.''

83. Lot was hurried from Sodom by the angels and avoided its destruction, by fleeing to a little city, called Bela also called Zoar. His wife was turned into a pillar of salt. Lot feared to continue at Zoar and left the plain country. He went into the hills, as he was commanded, taking his two daughters with him. Ge 19:30-38

84. Abraham left the plain of Mamre and went towards the south to dwell in a place which was later called Beersheba. He was entertained by Abimelech, king of the Philistines at Gerar. Sarah, once again went by the name of his sister and she was taken from him. After the king was reproved and punished by God, he restored her untouched to her husband. He presented him with large gifts and presents. By Abraham's prayers Abimelech and all his house were healed of their infirmities. Ge 20:1-18

2108c AM, 2818 JP, 1896 BC

85. When Abraham was now 100 and Sarah 90 years of age, the promised son Isaac was born to them. Ge 17:17,21 Ro 4:19 Not long after this, Moab and Amon were born to Lot, who was both father and grandfather to them. Ge 19:36-38

2113c AM, 2823 JP, 1891 BC

86. After Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a great feast. Sarah saw Ishmael the son of Hagar the Egyptian jesting with, or rather "mocking" (as in Ge 39:14 that word is translated) or even "persecuting" (as the apostle, Ga 4:29 expounds it) her son Isaac. Ishmael who was the older, claimed the right of inheritance in his father's estate. Sarah asked Abraham to cast out Ishmael, "for the son of this handmaid shall not be heir with my son Isaac." Though he took this very grievously at first, yet he did it, for God had said to him, "in Isaac shall thy seed be called". Ge 21:8,12 Ro 9:7,8 Heb 11:17,18 Hence, we observe that Isaac is called his only begotten son. It was 430 years from the time Abraham left Haran Ga 3:17 Ex 12:41 until the exodus. Abraham was told his seed would be persecuted for 400 years. Based on Ga 4:29, Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 we conclude that this presecution started at this time when Issac was 5 years old when Abraham made this feast, 30 years after Abraham left Haran.

``Among the Hebrews there is a difference of opinions. Some hold that this was done in the 5th year after Isaac's weaning, others in the 12th. We, choosing a shorter time of age, reckon that Ishmael was cast out with his mother, when he was 18 years old.''

87. So Jerome says, writing on the traditions of the Jews on Genesis, that from this declaration of the elect seed and persecution (as the apostle terms it) of Isaac, by Hagar's son, many of them, start the 400 year period which the seed of Abraham was to be a stranger and sojourner and afflicted in a foreign land, as God had foretold him. Ge 15:13 Ac 7:6 For those 400 years were to be completed at the same time as the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, as appears from Ge 15:14 Ex 12:35,36,41 when compared with each other. Although the ordinary gloss from Augustine, refers to the beginning of the account, to the very birth of Isaac, as if the scripture called the number of 405 by the amount of 400 years meaning that the time was a rounded off number.

2126d AM, 2836 JP, 1878 BC

88. Salah the 4th from Noah, died 403 years after the birth of Heber. Ge 11:15

2131b AM, 2841 JP, 1873 BC

89. Assis reigned in Egypt for 49 years, 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:83}

2133 AM, 2843 JP, 1871 BC

90. By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up his son Isaac. He considered within himself, that God was able by his power, to raise him again from the dead, whence also he did receive him, in a manner. Heb 11:17,19

91. Josephus says that at this time Isaac was 25 years old. (Antiq. l. 1. c. 13.) He was at that time in his prime of years. This may be deduced from the fact that he was able to carry so much wood for the burning and consuming of such a whole burnt offering of himself as Abraham intended to make. Ge 22:6

2145c AM, 2855 JP, 1859 BC

92. Sarah died in Hebron at age 127. Abraham bought the cave for her burial in the field of Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite, for a sum of money. This was the first possession that he had in the land of Canaan. Ge 23:1,2,19,20 As Abraham is known to us as the father of the faithful, Ro 4:11,12 so is Sarah as the mother of the faithful. 1Pe 3:6 She is the only woman whose age at death is mentioned in the scripture.

2148b AM, 2858 JP, 1856 BC

93. Abraham was very careful about getting a wife for his son Isaac. He sent his chief servant, Eliezer of Damascus Ge 15:2 (taking first an oath of him) to find one for him. Eliezer under the guidance of God went into Mesopotamia and there obtained for him Rebecca the daughter of Bethuel, sister to Laban the Syrian. Isaac received her for his wife and brought her into the tent of his mother Sarah. By the solace and contentment which he took in her, he dispelled the sadness and grief which he had after the death of his mother, who died 3 years before. Ge 24:1-67 He was 40 years old when he married Rebecca. Ge 25:20

94. About this time began the reign of the Argivi in Peloponesus, 1080 years before the first olympiad, according to Eusebius in his Chronicle reports, from Castor.

95. The first that there reigned was Inachus, who reigned 50 years. Of him Erasmus, in the proverb, "Inacho Antiquior", refers to. Whom also I refer that of the most learned Varro, in his 17th book of "Human Affairs", (cited by A. Gellius in his first book, "Noctium Attic" c. 16. and of Macrobius: l. 1 Saturnal.) where he said, to the beginning of Romulus are reckoned more than 1100 years. For from the beginning of Inachus' reign, according to the calculations of Castor, there mentioned, to the Palilia, or solemn festivals of Pales (the country goddess among the Romans) mentioned by Varro, are reckoned 1102 years.

2158d AM, 2868 JP, 1846 BC

96. Shem the son of Noah died 500 years after the birth of Arphaxad. Ge 11:11

2167d AM, 2877 JP, 1837 BC

97. When Rebecca had been barren for 19 years after her marriage, Isaac in great devotion made prayer to God on her behalf, and she thereupon conceived twins. Ge 25:21

2168c AM, 2878 JP, 1836 BC

98. When the twins strove in the womb, Rebecca asked counsel of God. God said that two differing and opposing nations should proceed out of her in that birth, of which the one should be stronger than the other, and that the older should serve the younger. But at the time of her travail, the first that came forth was ruddy all over and like to a shag garment and his name was called Esau. Then came forth the other, holding the former by the heel, whereupon he was called by the name of Jacob. Isaac, their father, at the time of their birth, was 60 years old. Ge 25:22 Ho 12:3

2179 AM, 2889 JP, 1825 BC

99. Manetho wrote {*Manetho, 1:101} that Tethmosis king of Thebais, or the upper Egypt, besieged the Hyksos or Shepherds, shut up in a place called Auarim (containing 10,000 acres of ground) with an army of 480,000 men. When he found no possibility of taking them, he agreed with them that they should leave Egypt and go freely wherever they wished. They, with all their substance and goods, being in number no less than 440,000, passed through Egypt and went by the way of the wilderness into Syria. For fear they had of the Assyrians, who then possessed all Asia, they built themselves a city in the land of Judah, as it is now called. This city was big enough to hold so large a number of inhabitants, and called it Hierosolyma, i.e. Jerusalem. Manetho states this in Josephus l. 1. contra Appionem Grammaticum, which (Appion in his 4th book of "Egyptian Affaires") calls this king, Amosis. He proves out of the Annals of Ptolemy Mendesius an Egyptian priest, that he was contemporary to Inachus mentioned previously, king of the Argivi, as Tatian the Assyrian (in his Oration against the Greeks) Justin Martyr, (in his Paranetion or Exhortatory to the Greeks) Clemens Alexandrinus in his first book of his Stromata and others do report. All which following Josephus and Justus Tiberiensis understand is meant of the Israelites, because they traded much in sheep, Ge 46:33,34 47:3. Because they went from Egypt into Canaan and therefore imagine that Moses was contemporary with Inachus and was the man that conducted them in that journey. Whereas those things seem rather to refer to the Phoenicians, whom Herodotus (l. 7. c. 89) reports to have come from the Red Sea and settled themselves in Palestine. The departure of the Israelites from Egypt happened many years after Inachus, as the course of this chronology undoubtedly shows.

2180c AM, 2890 JP, 1824 BC

100. When Tethmosis or Amosis drove out these shepherds, he reigned in the lower Egypt for 25 years, 4 months.{*Manetho, 1:101}

2183c AM, 2893 JP, 1821 BC

101. Abraham died when he was 175 years old and 100 years after entering Canaan. He was buried by his two sons, Isaac and Ishmael, in his cave at Machpelah, with Sarah his wife. Ge 25:7,10 He lived 15 years after the birth of Jacob, with whom he is said also to have lived in tents. Heb 11:9

2187d AM, 2897 JP, 1817 BC

102. Heber, the 5th from Noah, died 430 years after the birth of his son Peleg. Ge 11:17 This man lived the longest of any who were born after the flood. He out lived Abraham and from him Abraham came first to be surnamed, the Hebrew. Ge 14:13 In later times, all the posterity of his grandchild Jacob, were known by the same name. Ge 40:15 Canaan was called the land of the Hebrews, while the Canaanites were still living there.

2200 AM, 2910 JP, 1804 BC

103. About this time, the promises previously made to Abraham, so it seemed, were fulfilled in his son Isaac. To wit:

1) I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of heaven.
2) To thy seed will I give this land.
3) In thy seed, shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Ge 26:4

2205d AM, 2915 JP, 1799 BC

104. Chebron reigned in Egypt 13 years. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2208c AM, 2918 JP, 1796 BC

105. When Esau was 40 years old, he took two wives from the land of the Hittites. One was Judith the daughter of Beeri and the other was Bashemath the daughter of Elon. These two wives were very troublesome and a grief to Rebecca. Ge 26:34,35 cf. Ge 27:46 28:8

106. At this time the Ogygian Deluge occurred in the country of Attica 1020 years before the first olympiad. This is reported by Hellanicus, Castor, Thalus, Diodorus Siculus and Alexander Polyhistor in his third book of his Chronography, by Julius Africanus, as we find it in Eusebius' book, de Prap. Evang. Varro says this flood happend 300 years earlier.

2218d AM, 2928 JP, 1786 BC

107. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 20 years, 7 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2231b AM, 2941 JP, 1773 BC

108. Abraham's son, Ishmael, died at the age of 137 years. Ge 25:17

2239b AM, 2949 JP, 1765 BC

109. Amessis the sister of Amenophis, reigned in Egypt 21 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2242 AM, 2952 JP, 1762 BC

110. Euechous began to reign in Chaldea, 224 years before the Arabians. (Julian Africanus) He seems to be the same with Belus of Babylon, or Jupiter Belus, who was worshipped later by the Chaldeans as a god. Isa 46:1 Jer 50:2 51:41

2245a AM, 2954 JP, 1760 BC

111. 44 years before his death, Isaac had grown old and blind. He sent his oldest son Esau to hunt some venison for him. Isaac purposed to bless him when he returned. However, Jacob his younger son, by the subtil counsel of his mother, came disguised in Esau's clothing bringing Isaac's favourite meat. Thus he stole away the blessing, unknown to his father. The blessing, though forgotten, God confirmed ever after to Jacob. By so doing, Jacob incurred his brother's hatred. Jacob journeyed to Mesopotamia to his uncle Laban, to avoid his brother's plan to kill him Ge 27:41 and to find a wife of his own kindred. Ge 28:1 Before he left, he asked for his father's blessing on the trip.

112. On his journey, he saw a vision of a ladder. In this vision, God confirmed to him, all the blessings formerly given to his father. God assured him of his grace and favour for the future. In remembrance of this experience, Jacob set up a pillar. He changed the name of the place from Luz to Bethel and made a vow to God there. When he came to Haran, he stayed with Laban for a month. He fell in love with Rachel his daughter and agreed to serve Laban 7 years for her. Ge 27:1 29:20 Ho 12:12 Jacob was 77 years old in 2259 AM.

113. When Esau knew Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away into Mesopotamia to find a wife there and that Jacob did not like the daughters of Canaan, he tried to pacify his father's mind. Isaac was offended with him for marrying his first wife from Canaan. Therefore he took a second wife Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael, the son of Abraham, Ge 28:6,9

114. Esau had been now a married man 37 years and was 77 years old. Jacob, who was as old as he, had all this while lived a bachelor. Remembering his father's command, he asked Rachel his wife to be given to him because he had served the allotted time for her. Ge 29:21 He was now of an age suitable for marriage, as Tremellius explains it. Tho. Lidyate understands this to have happened after the first month he was with Laban. However Laban intended from the beginning to make full use of Jacob's industry and his managerial skills before he would give his daughter to Jacob. This no doubt, was mentioned when Jacob first arrived since this was the main purpose for his coming.

115. However, by Laban's fraud, instead of Rachel, Leah, the older daughter, was put into Jacob's bed on the marriage night. Nevertheless, at the end of the marriage week, Jud 14:12,17 Rachel also was espoused to him on the condition that Jacob of would serve seven more years for her. Laban gave to Leah, his maid servant Zilpah for a handmaid and to Rachel he gave Bilhah.

116. When Leah was not so favoured by Jacob as Rachel was, God made Rachel barren and Leah was made a mother of 4 children in 4 successive years. Ge 29:21-30:24

2246 AM, 2956 JP, 1758 BC

117. Leah bore Reuban, Jacob's firstborn. Ge 29:32 For his incest committed with Bilhah, his father's concubine, Reuben later lost his birthright. Ge 35:22 49:3,4 1Ch 5:1

2247 AM, 2957 JP, 1757 BC

118. Simeon was born.

2248 AM, 2958 JP, 1756 BC

119. Levi was born Ge 35:34

2249c AM, 2959 JP, 1755 BC

120. Judah was born Ge 35:35 from whom the Jews took their name.

2259c AM, 2969 JP, 1745 BC

121. God blessed Rachel and she bore Joseph to Jacob at the end of his 14 years of service. Jacob asked permission from Laban to return into his own country. He remained there 6 more years on a another condition made between him and his father-in-law Laban for a certain part of his flock. Ge 30:22,25,31 31:41 Now Jacob was 91 years old when Joseph was born and consequently, 77 years old, when he first began to serve Laban. This can be deduced for Jacob was 130 years old, when he first stood before Pharaoh, at the time when the 7 years of plenty were passed and 2 years of the famine were over. Ge 45:6 47:9 Joseph was then 39 years old. He was 30 years old when he first came before Pharaoh, just before the 7 years of plenty. Ge 41:32,46

2261a AM, 2970 JP, 1744 BC

122. Mephres reigned in Egypt, 12 years, 9 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2265c AM, 2975 JP, 1739 BC

123. As the jealousy and malice grew between Laban and his sons against Jacob, God warned him to return to his own country. Jacob told his wives of this. When Laban was shearing his sheep, at the latter end of the spring (See note on 2974c AM <<439>>) after 20 years of service, Jacob secretly fled from Laban. He took all his goods, wives and family and crossed over the river Euphrates. Ge 31:1,3,19,21,38,41 It is said Jacob had 12 sons born to him in Mesopotamia. Ge 35:22,26 Benjamin is not to be counted among them because he was born later in the land of Canaan near Bethlehem. Ge 16:18,19 In like manner, as the 12 apostles are counted to make up that number even though Judas was dead. Joh 20:24 1Co 15:1 Concerning this matter, see Augustine in his 117th question upon Genesis.

124. Three days later, Laban (for he was three days journey from the place where Jacob kept his sheep) heard that his son-in-law was gone and took some of his friends and kindred with him. After travelling seven days he caught up with him at Mount Gilead. This mount was named from this meeting. After many arguments, they finally reconciled. For a testimony and monument to their covenant and agreement, Jacob erected a pillar, with a heap of stones. Laban the Syrian, called it "Jegar Sahadutha", but Jacob the Hebrew called it "Galeed", i.e. "the heap of a testimony", or "witness" between the two. Ge 31:47,48

125. After Jacob left Laban in peace, he was frightened by the news of his brother Esau's coming with a band of men. He divided his company into two groups and called on God. He sent ahead of him presents to his brother Esau. After wrestling with the angel, he was given the name of Israel by God. Jacob matured spiritually by depending more on the help of God than on man. Ge 32:1-32 Ho 12:3,4

126. Esau entertained his brother courteously. After much entreaty he accepted Jacob's presents and offered to escort him on his way. When Jacob refused, Esau left. Then Jacob went on to Succoth. He called the place Succoth because he built an house there and cotes for his sheep. After passing over Jordan, he came into Canaan and pitched his tent in Shechem, a city of the Shechemites. He bought a parcel of ground from the sons of Hamor the Shechemite, for 100 pieces of silver. There he built an altar, which he called by the name of "El-Elohe-Israel" or "The mighty God, the God of Israel." Ge 33:1-20 It was in this same place that Abraham had built his first altar before: Ge 12:6,7 and where Jacob's well was, near to Mount Gerizim. When the woman of Samaria spoke to our Saviour, she said that her fathers worshipped in this mountain. Joh 4:5,6,12,20 This mountain was located in the country of the Shechemites. Jud 9:7

2273d AM, 2983 JP, 1731 BC

127. Mephramuthosis reigned in Egypt 25 years, 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2276c AM, 2986 JP, 1728 BC

128. When Joseph was 17 years old, he told his father of his brothers' wickedness and was told by God that he would one day be the head of all his father's family. His brothers hated him for this so much that they plotted his death. At length they agreed to sell him for a slave into a far country. When they drew him from the pit that they had cast him into, they sold him for 20 pieces of silver to the Ishmaelite and Midianite merchants. Both of these peoples descended from their grandfather Abraham. Joseph was carried away by them to Egypt. There they sold him to be a slave to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's guard. Ge 37:2,3,6 Justin also, in his Epitome of Troeus Pompeius, l. 36. c. 2. makes mention of Joseph. He says:

``His brothers envied the excellency of his wisdom. After getting him privately into their hands, they sold him to foreign merchants who carried him into Egypt.''

2287c AM, 2997 JP, 1717 BC

129. When Joseph, was thrown into prison, he interpreted the dreams of two officers of Pharaoh's court. This was two years before he was brought before Pharaoh. Ge 40:1-41:1

2288c AM, 2998 JP, 1716 BC

130. Isaac died at the age of 180 years and was buried by his two sons, Esau and Jacob. Ge 35:28,29

2289b AM, 2999 JP, 1715 BC

131. When Pharaoh could not get his dreams interpreted by his own wise men, and after hearing of Joseph's skill in expounding dreams, he sent for Joseph. He was 30 years old when he explained the king's dreams. The first dream was that of the 7 years of plenty followed by 7 years famine. Moreover, he advised Pharaoh how to provide from the abundance of the first 7 years of plenty, for the famine of the next 7 years of scarcity. Thereupon Pharaoh, by the general agreement of all his nobles, made him governor of the whole kingdom. He gave him a wife, Asenath, the daughter of Potiphar, governor of On or Heliopolis in Egypt. Ge 41:1-46 Justin also from Trogus Pompeius says, that he was very important to Pharaoh. For he said:

``Joseph was most skilled in explaining dreams or signs and was the first that found out and taught the art of the interpretation of dreams. Neither was there any part of divine or human intention, which seemed to be unknown to him in that he foretold a famine many years before it happened. All Egypt would have perished unless the king, by his advice, had ordered grain to be stored many years before the famine came.''

132. From the harvest of this year started the 7 years of plenty. In these years Joseph laid up an enormous supply of grain. Asenath, his wife, bore him two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim. Ge 41:47,51,53

2296c AM, 3006 JP, 1708 BC

133. The 7 years of the famine began from the harvest of this year as predicted. Joseph's wisdom in laying up supplies not only sustained Egypt but also helped relieve the famine in the neighbouring countries. Ge 41:54,57

2297d AM, 3007 JP, 1707 BC

134. Jacob sent 10 of his sons into Egypt to buy grain. Joseph pretended not to know them and took them for spies. They were held and not released until Simeon, the oldest and the leader of them, who consented to sell Joseph, was cast into prison. He was held to ensure that the rest should bring to Joseph, Benjamin, their youngest brother, who was born of Rachel, Joseph's own mother. When they were sent away, they carried their grain and the money they had payed for it. This money was placed into each of their sacks by the secret orders of Joseph. They told their father Jacob, all that had happened to them. Also they told him it was necessary that their youngest brother Benjamin return with them to Egypt. They were not able to convince Jacob to allow this to happen. Ge 42:1-38

2298b AM, 3008 JP, 1706 BC

135. When Jacob was hard pressed by the famine, he sent his sons again and with them Benjamin their brother. He sent twice the amount of money needed to buy grain and other gifts for Joseph. When they arrived, they were courteously entertained and feasted by Joseph. Simeon was released and returned to them. Ge 43:1-34

136. When they were on their way home, Joseph arrested them for stealing his cup. This he had caused secretly to be hidden in Benjamin's sack. When they were confronted with this crime, they tried to show their honesty by the fact that they returned the money they found in their sacks when they came into Egypt the second time. They offered to die, or to be his slaves, if any such thing could be proved against them. But in the end the cup was found with Benjamin. They returned to Joseph and yielded themselves to him to be his slaves. When Joseph refused and said he would have no one but him with whom the cup was found, Judah then humbly offered himself to serve him in Benjamin's stead. Ge 44:1-34

137. When Joseph heard Judah make this offer, he revealed himself to his brothers. The brothers were all terrified at the remembrance of the sin which they had committed against Joseph. He comforted them by showing how that deed of theirs was an act of God's providence. From the king's supplies, Joseph ordered wagons and provisions for their journey. They were to go and to return with all speed, bringing their father and their families with them. When they told their father, he did not believe them, until he saw the wagons and other supplies necessary for them to move to Egypt. Ge 45:1-28

138. After Jacob offered sacrifices and was encouraged by God, he and all his family, went down into Egypt. This was in the beginning of the third year of the famine when Jacob was 130 years old. Ge 45:6 46:1,27 47:9 De 26:5

139. After Joseph had told Pharaoh of the arrival of his family in Egypt, he brought his father and 5 of his brothers to Pharaoh. When Pharaoh had communed with them, he assigned them a suitable place in the land of Goshen where Joseph took care of all their needs. Ge 47:1-12

2299d AM, 3009 JP, 1705 BC

140. Mephramuthosis died and Thmosis reigned in Egypt for 9 years 8 months. {*Manetho, 1:101}

2300 AM, 3010 JP, 1704 BC

141. Joseph took all the money in Egypt and Canaan from the grain that he had sold to them. Ge 47:14

2301 AM, 3011 JP, 1703 BC

142. When all the money of both these countries was spent, the Egyptians sold all their flocks and herds of cattle to Joseph for food to live on that year. Ge 47:15-17

2302 AM, 3012 JP, 1702 BC

143. At the end of this year, when their money and stock of cattle was all gone, the Egyptians then sold both their lands and freedom to Joseph. He supplied them with grain for food and with seed to plant in this seventh and last year of the famine. He was to be repaid in the year following, when the famine was over. So that Pharaoh would have a clear title and full possession of the lands he purchased, Joseph moved everyone from one side of the country to the other. There he assigned to every man land to till and to work. From the profits a law was made giving Pharaoh a fifth part of the increase. Only the chief governors' and the priests' lands, were not bought by Pharaoh. These individuals had a living by the king's allowance and had no need to sell their lands for food as others had.

2309b AM, 3019 JP, 1695 BC

144. Amenophis reigned in Egypt 30 years 10 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2315 AM, 3025 JP, 1689 BC

145. When Jacob was about to die, he adopted Ephraim and Manasseh the sons of Joseph. He blessed them by revelation from God and set the younger ahead of the older. Ge 48:1-22 Heb 11:12 When he called his sons together, he blessed them all and foretold what should befall them in the coming generations. He told them that memorable prophesy of the Messiah and gave orders to them concerning his burial. He died at 147 years of age 17 years of which were in the land of Egypt. Ge 49:1-33 47:25

146. Joseph had the body of Jacob embalmed and kept for 40 days. The Egyptians mourned him for 70 days. With Pharaoh's leave, the body was conveyed into the land of Canaan by Joseph and his brothers and with a great number of the principal men of Pharaoh's court. Lamentation was again made over him 7 days and he was buried with his kindred in the cave at Machpelah according to his wishes. Ge 50:15-21

2340b AM, 3050 JP, 1664 BC

147. Orus reigned in Egypt for 36 years 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2369c AM, 3079 JP, 1635 BC

148. By faith, Joseph on his death bed spoke of the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt. He asked that his bones might be carried with them. He was 110 years old when he died and saw his children to the third generation. Ge 50:22-26 Heb 11:22 These were Shuthelah and Tahan, the grandsons of Ephraim and Eran or Taran, Nu 26:36 the sons of Manasseh and Gilead was Manasseh's grandchild. From here it is, that the Greek expositors, speaking of the families of Jacob and Joseph, which were said to consist of 70 souls, Ge 46:27 De 10:22 adding to the total these 5 who were born to Joseph in Egypt 1Ch 7:20-29 for a number of 75 persons in all. It appears that Joseph ruled and governed the state of Egypt for 80 years under several Pharaohs. Eusebius in his chronicle, has rightly observed and summarised it thus:

``Joseph was made governor of Egypt when he was 30 years old and when his father Jacob was 122 years old. He headed the government for 80 years. After he died, the Hebrews were held in bondage by the Egyptians 144 years. Therefore, the whole time which the Hebrews spent in Egypt was 215 years, starting from the time that Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt.''

149. The book of Genesis ends with the death of Joseph and contains the history of 2369 years. This book was written by Moses. This is the opinion of the Talmudists in their Bababathra l. 1. and so it is generally believed by all the Hebrews. The sum of it is delivered by "Servins Sulpicins", in the first book of his "Historia Sacras" thus:

``At this time lived Job, a man embracing the law of nature, and the knowledge of the true God and very righteous and rich in goods. He was renowned for the fact that neither the enjoyment of those riches corrupted him, nor the loss of them depraved him in any way. When he was plundered of all his goods by Satan, bereft of his children and at last tormented with grievous botches and sores in his body, he did not sin. Having first been commended by God himself, he was later restored to his former health, and had double of what he possessed before.''

2376c AM, 3086 JP, 1628 BC

150. Acencheres the daughter of Orus reigned in Egypt for 12 years 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2385 AM, 3095 JP, 1619 BC

151. Levi died in Egypt when he was 137 years old. Ex 6:16 He was the grandfather by the mother's side to Moses and Aaron and great grandfather by the father's side. Levi had begotten Kohath in Canaan, who died at the age of 133 years and a daughter called Jochebed in Egypt. Amram the son of Kohath married Jochebed the daughter of Levi, his own aunt. From that marriage (expressly forbidden later) Le 18:12 20:19 Moses and Aaron and their sister Miriam were born. Amram lived 137 years, just as long as his grandfather and his father-in-law. He died shortly before the Israelites left Egypt. Ex 2:1,6,18,20 Nu 26:59

2388 AM, 3098 JP, 1616 BC

152. Rathotis, the brother of Acencheres, reigned in Egypt for 9 years. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2389 AM, 3099 JP, 1615 BC

153. When the Ethiopians came from as far as the river Indus, they settled on the borders of Egypt. (Euseb. Chron.) This is the place, to which Panegyrist refers, where he said:

``Let the victories of Egypt give place to this, under which the Ethiopian and Indus both did tremble''

154. J. Potken, in his Ethiopian Psalter printed at Rome in 1513, calls Ethiopia, which is to the south of Egypt, the greater India.

2397 AM, 3107 JP, 1607 BC

155. Acencheres, the son of Rathotis, reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 5 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2410a AM, 3120 JP, 1594 BC

156. Acencheres II reigned in Egypt for 12 years and 3 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2422b AM, 3132 JP, 1582 BC

157. Harmais reigned in Egypt for 4 years and 1 month. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2426c AM, 3136 JP, 1578 BC

158. Ramesses reigned in Egypt for 1 year 4 months. {*Manetho, 1:103}

2427d AM, 3137 JP, 1577 BC

159. Ramesses Miamun reigned in Egypt for 66 years 2 months. {*Manetho, 1:103} The latter part of the surname seems to have been deduced from the first part of the name Amenophis. His son after him and several also of his predecessors were called by this name. The former part of it was from the word "Moy" which with the Egyptians signifies "water", as Josephus (a. contra, Apion.) and Clemens Alexand. (1. 1. Stromat.) and Suidas (in ~wc) affirms. Those writers, who relate all by way of fables, called Mythologians, gave him the name of Neptune, the feigned god of the waters, as shall be shown upon the year 2533 AM <<259>>. This is that new king, who did not know Joseph. He was born after Joseph's death and remembered no more the great benefits received from him. By his policy the Egyptians, frightened at the number and strength of the Israelites in the land, subjected them to a heavy and cruel bondage. In addition to tilling the ground, they laid upon them the building also of the king's magazines and storehouses and the whole cities of Raamsis or Ramesis. Ex 1:8,14 Ac 7:18,19 The latter took its name, as Mercator thinks, from Ramesses the founder of it and the other perhaps from his queen.

2430b AM, 3140 JP, 1574 BC

160. Aaron was born 3 years before his brother Moses, 83 years before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt. Ex 7:7

2431b AM, 3141 JP, 1573 BC

161. The ungodly king could not prevail with Shiphrah and Pua, the two principal midwives of the Hebrew women, to force them to kill all the male children of the Hebrews. Therefore he proclaimed a barbarous edict to destroy them all by drowning them in the river. Ex 1:15-22 Ac 7:19,20 This happened between the birth of Aaron and the birth of Moses.

2433 AM, 3143 JP, 1571 BC

162. 41 years after the death of her father Levi, Jochebed bore Moses to Amram, her nephew and husband. Moses was 80 years old, when he first spoke to Pharaoh to let the children of Israel go. Ex 7:7 40 years later Moses died in the 12th month when he was 120 years old. De 3:1,2 34:7

163. Because Moses was an attractive child, as Justin also from Trogus Pompeius mentions him to have been, his parents hid him 3 months in their house. They did not regard the king's edict. Ex 2:2 Ac 7:20 Heb 11:23

164. He was discovered by the diligent inquiry made by the king's searchers and their bad neighbours the Egyptians. The parents put him in a basket of bulrushes, daubed over with slime and pitch and laid it in the flags, by the brim of the river. His sister, Miriam or Mary, Nu 26:59 1Ch 6:3 stood near by to see what would become of him. Pharaoh's daughter whom Josephus (Antiq. l. 2. c. 9.) called Thermutin and so does Epiphanius, in Panario and others) found him there. She put him out to be nursed, as it happened, to his own mother Jochebed. Afterward she adopted him for her son and had him brought up and instructed in all manner of science and learning of the Egyptians. Ex 2:5,10 Ac 7:21,22

2448 AM, 3158 JP, 1556 BC

165. Cecrops, an Egyptian, transported a colony of the Saits into Attica (Diod. Sic. l. 1.) and set up there the kingdom of the Athenians. This was 780 years before the 1st Olympiad, according to Eusebius in Chron. reports from Castor. From the time of Cecrops, the Chronology of the Ile of Paros, published by that most learned J. Selden, among his Marmora Arundelliana, deduces history or antiquities of Greece. After him and Moses, who was contemporary with him, many memorable things happened in Greece as follows:

a) Deucalion's flood
b) Phaeton's fire
c) the birth of Ericthonius
d) the rape of Prosepina
e) the mysteries of Ceres
f) the institution of the Elesinian sacrifices,
g) Triptolemus' art of tilling the ground
h) the carrying away of Europa, by Jupiter
i) the birth of Apollo
j) the building of Thebes, by Cadmus
k) those of a later time, Bacchus, Minos, Perseus, Esculapius, Castor and Pollux, Hercules. (Euseb 1. 10. de Prep. Ev. c. 9.)

2465 AM, 3175 JP, 1539 BC

166. In the 18th year of Cecrops, the Chaldeans made war and fought with the Phoenicians. (Euseb. Chron.)

2466 AM, 3176 JP, 1538 BC

167. In this war the Chaldeans were defeated and the Arabians reigned in the country of Babylon 216 years before Belus the Assyrian came there to reign. The 1st king of the Arabians was Mardocentes, who reigned there 45 years (Jul. Afric.) and seems to be the man that is called Merodach. He was later reputed by the Babylonians to be a god, Jer 50:2. Succeeding kings borrowed their names from him as Merodoch, Baladan and Evil-merodach.

2473b AM, 3183 JP, 1531 BC

168. When Moses was 40 years old, he visited his brethren, the Israelites. When he saw their sad plight and an Egyptian smiting a man of the Hebrews, he killed the Egyptian and buried him in the sand. This became known not only to his brethren but also to Pharaoh who sought to kill him. Moses fled from there into the land of Midian. He married Zipporah the daughter of Jethro and stayed there 40 years. Ac 23:30 Ex 2:11,12 3:1 18:1,2 Nu 10:29 Jude 4:11

2474 AM, 3184 JP, 1530 BC

169. Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, was born forty years before he was sent by Moses to spy out the land of Canaan. Jos 14:7,10

2494a AM, 3203 JP, 1511 BC

170. Ramesses Miamun died in the 67th year of his reign about 1510 BC. The length of his tyrannical reign seems to be noted Ex 2:23 in these words.

``And it came to pass in process of time, that the king of Egypt died: and the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they cried ...''

171. That is the cruel bondage, which they endured, even after Ramesses was dead for about 19 and 6 months, under his son Amenophis, who succeeded him. For so long and no longer a time of his reign is assigned by Manetho based on his writings. {*Manetho, 1:103} Although filled with a multitude of old wives tales, all such are abundantly refuted by Josephus, in his 1st book against Apion., yet there are two truths in it.

1. Under this Amenophis, the father of Sethosis or Ramesses (the 1st king of the following Dynasty, or successive principality) which Manetho makes the 19 and not under the other Amenophis which was the 3rd of that Dynasty (as Josephus vainly surmises), the Israelites, under the conduct of Moses, according to Manetho's relation, left Egypt.

2. The Egyptians called him Amenophis, the father of Sethosis and Armais. The Greeks called him Belus, the father of Egyptus, and Danaus. During Belus' time, according to Thallus the Chronographer (as he is alleged by Theophilus Antiochenus and Lactantius) agrees with the age of this Amenophis. Although the fable writers confounding this Belus of Egypt, with Belus the Assyrian, the father of Ninus. They tell us that certain colonies were transported by this Belus (who was drowned in the Red Sea,) into the country of Babylon.

2513b AM, 3223 JP, 1491 BC

172. God appeared to Moses in a burning bush that was not consumed with fire, while he was keeping his father-in-law Jethro's sheep in the mountain of Horeb. He called him to deliver his people Israel from their slavery and bondage in Egypt. Moses sought to avoid doing this with many excuses. At length however, he undertook the work being persuaded partly by miracles and partly by assurance given him of the help of God and his brother Aaron given him for an assistant. Ac 7:30,35 Ex 3-4:1,18

173. Moses left Jether or Jethro his father-in-law and with his family took his journey for Egypt. Because he neglected to circumcise his son Eliezer, he was stopped by God in the way and not allowed to continue until he done this. He sent back his wife Zipporah and his two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, to her father Jethro. Now freed from all encumbrance, he returned to mount Horeb and met his brother Aaron. He went on and performed his duty, confirmed by miracles, in the public sight of the children of Israel. Ex 4:18,31 18:1,6

174. Moses and Aaron declared to Pharaoh God's message. Pharaoh charged them as being leaders in a rebellion and sent them away angrily. He increased the burden of the Israelites more than ever before. Their overseers were beaten because they could not do all the work. They complained in vain to Pharaoh. They complained to Moses and Aaron and Moses complained to God. God graciously heard him and told him to finish the work he had begun. Ex 5:1-22

175. Moses returned to the Israelites with further instructions from God. Because of their oppression, it was to no avail. Hence God commanded him to go again to Pharaoh. Ex 6:1-30

176. Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 years old when they were commanded by God to return again to Pharaoh. When the magicians by their sorcery, imitated the miracles of Aaron's rod becoming a serpent, Pharaoh was more obstinate than ever. Ex 7:1,13 The leaders of these magicians which opposed Moses, were Jannes and Jambres. as named by the apostle, 2Ti 3:8. These names are noted, not only by the Jews in their Talmudical treaty of tyhgm i.e. of Oblations, c. 9. where they are called by the names of yghfy and admmw i.e. Jochanne and Mamre. In the Chaldee Paraphrase, they are attributed to Jonathan. Ex 1:15 7:11 Among some heathen writers, for so Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean Philosopher, in his 3rd book, wfsituataqhq cited by Euseb. 1. 9. Prepar. Evang. c. 8. relates this history:

``Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon all the Egyptians.''

177. Pliny, (1. 30. c. 1.) in reference to this states

``There is also another sect of Magicians, depending upon Moses, and Jannes and Jotape Jews.''

178. Wherein nevertheless he falls into a double error,

a. In reckoning Moses among the magicians.
b. In making Jannes and Jotape to be Jews.

179. But when Pharaoh's magicians could do no more, God through Moses sent his ten plagues upon the Egyptians. These are summarised in Ps 78: 1-72 105:1-45. According to the Jews, these plagues lasted a year but in fact they were all sent within one month in this order.

180. About the 18th day of the 6th month, (which in the previous year and thereafter became the 12th month Ex 12:2) God sent the first plague of the waters turning into blood. After 7 days, Ex 7:25 about the 25th day, came the second plague of the frogs which were removed the next day. About the 27th was brought upon them the third plague of flies and lice.

181. About the 28th day, Moses threatened them with a fourth plague of flies and other vermin. These came on the 29th day and were all taken away on the 30th day.

182. About the 1st of the 7th month (which shortly after was made the 1st month of the year Ex 12:2) After Moses warned them of a fifth plague, he brought it upon them the next day. This was the plague of murrain in cattle. About the 3rd day, the sixth plague of boils and botches came upon man and beast. This plague came on the magicians as well. Ex 9:11 Hence wrote Justin, from Trogus Pompeius, l. 36.

``The Egyptians were afflicted with the scab and sores. When they were warned by an Oracle, all, that were infected with that disease, expelled Moses out of Egypt lest the plague should spread further among the people.''

183. Note here too the sayings collected out of Diodorus Sicul. 1. 40. reported in Phati Bibliotheca. p. 620.

184. About the 4th day, Moses warned them of a seventh plague which came on them on the 5th day of the same month. It was a plague of thunders and rain and grievous hail, mixed with fire which ruined their flax and barley because the barley was then in the ear and the flax bolled. But their wheat and the rye were not harmed, because they were not yet out of the ground. Hence Nicolaus Fullerus, l. 3. of his Miscellanies rightly observes, p. 389. that this plague happened in the month of Abib.

185. About the 7th day Moses threatened them with an eighth plague. The next day the plague of locusts came and devoured all green plants. He removed the plague about the 9th day. Ex 10:4,11,19

186. The month Abib, which was the 7th month, was from this time on made the first month of the year. Ex 12:2 13:4 This was for a memorial of their departure out of the land of Egypt. From the beginning of this month we deduce the epochs of the Jewish Calendar. Nu 9:1,2 Ex 40:17

187. On the 10th day of this the month, (which was the Thursday April 30th according the Julian Calendar) was instituted the feast of the Passover and unleavened bread. The Pascal lamb was chosen and killed four days later. Ex 13:3,6

188. Moses now brings upon them the ninth plague of 3 days darkness. It was so dark that none of the Egyptians during that time, once left the place where they were when the darkness came. However, the Israelites had during that time, light in their dwellings. Ex 10:22,23

189. Upon the 14th day (Monday, May 4th) Moses spoke with Pharaoh for the last time. Moses told him of the tenth plague which should come upon him. This was the death of all the firstborn of Egypt, which came to pass the next night at midnight. Pharaoh, in a rage ordered Moses to get out of his sight and never come back again. Ex 10:24-29 11:1,4-8 The passover was celebrated that evening. Ex 12:11,12

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l the value of Mr. Judson's services too much to allow their using any measures threatening his life. I thought his situation, also, would be much more comfortable than it really was-hence my anxiety was less. But my health, which had never been restored, since that violent attack at Oung-pen-la, now daily declined, until I was seized with the spotted fever, with all its attendant horrors. I knew the nature of the fever