ACTION-AT-A-DISTANCE. This is the hypothesis accepted by some scientific groups that there need not be natural world objects or a medium that carries electromagnetic effects or gravitational effects and the like. The belief is that such effects occur instantaneously throughout the universe and that the apparent time delays that occur are delays within the cause or the effect.

ANAMORPHOSIS PROCESS. A process that takes place after the intermediate or minimum metamorphic effect. This process distorts the original electromagnetic or particle radiation so that observations taken after the time fracture cannot give any information about the condition of our universe prior to the time fracture.

AUTHORITY SYNDROME. This is the assumption that statements given by so-called authorities are true. This syndrome assumes that the individual will not investigate the truthfulness of such statements.

BACKGROUND UNIVERSE. A hidden universe in which our universe is embedded. Such a universe exists logically and contains processes that create universes as well as sustaining the time development of the universes that are created.

BIG BANG. One of the infinitely many different descriptions for the beginnings of our universe.

CATALYST. This is an abstract mathematical object that may be given a physical-like name. When a name is so given the object need not be assumed to exist in reality. It is an aid to human comprehension and imagery.

CAUSE. A described and named entity that is accepted as a primary reason for an event to occur. The acceptance of something as being a cause need not be based upon any form of verification. This is especially the case where other distinct causes not so accepted will lead to the same effects. In a technical language, it is simply a member of a list of symbols categorized causes. This term is better understood by experience.

CONCRETE MODEL. Usually, a physical entity for which a specific set of written statements can be verified as holding true.

CONTACT MODEL. The notion that all transfers of any quantities within the Natural world take place by one object contacting or approaching near to another entity. This assumption is a basic driving force within the micro-world of subatomic physics.

CONTENT. This is the set of all impressions that a written broadly described event evokes within the mind of an individual.

DATA COLLECTION. A strictly defined process for gathering hard data. A basic example is the process of identifying and writing down a list of numbers that one reads from the dials on a machine.

DEDUCTIVE WORLD MODEL (D-WORLD MODEL). This is the mathematical structure, the extended G-structure, interpreted linguistically.

DEVELOPING NATURAL SYSTEM. A natural system that is altered in some identifiable manner with respect to time.

DEVELOPMENTAL PARADIGM. This is a sequence of broadly defined descriptions for the moment-to-moment behavior of a Natural system. It corresponds to an event sequence.

DIALECTRICAL LOGIC. A special form of logical argument that is used for some philosophical arguments.

EFFECT. A described and named phenomenon, usually Natural or ultranatural, that is closely associated with a specific cause. It is the claimed result of the cause. As with the concept of a cause, what is considered as an effect of a cause need not be based upon any verification, especially where other effects not so accepted can be considered as resulting from the same cause. The symbol string that names an effect is taken from a list symbol strings categorized as effects.

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION. A special form of radiation that is sensed by specific instruments. Our eyes can sense portions of this radiation, but most of it can only be sensed by specially built machines.

EVENT. For this book, this is a Natural or ultranatural phenomenon that is being described by a string of symbols.

EVENT SEQUENCE. A time ordered collection of events.

GROWTH-OVER-TIME. The notion that all physical entities take time to alter their characteristics. Usually, from a simple to a complex structure.

GRUNLEGEND STRUCTURE (G-STRUCTURE). The basic mathematical structure used for both the D-world and MA-models.

HYPOTHETICAL. Originally for the physical world, an assumed something-or-other that was not assumed to exist in reality but was needed as an aid in understanding the physical world. This term is associated with many other concepts.

IN-PROCESS. See intrinsic natural process.

INCONSISTENT. A set of statements is inconsistent for a certain logical process if when one applies such a logical process a contradiction occurs. The mental effects that an inconsistent set of statements produces can be devastating.

INDIRECT VERIFICATION. A portion of the so-called scientific method that claims that the existence of entities and processes that cannot be sensed by human beings directly can be inferred from predicted events that can be directly sensed by human beings or their machines.

INFANT. See subparticle.

INFINITESIMAL. A mathematical entity that, in this book, is used to measure physical behavior. Originally, such measures were thought to exist in reality. Then, when contradictions occurred, although still used, they became physical parameters or catalysts. But, today, since the contradictions have been removed, they can once again be interpreted as measures for real physical entities.

INFORMATIONAL TRANSMISSIONS. These occur when special Natural or ultranatural entities are used to give certain special information to other Natural or ultranatural entities. The methods by which such information is shared may be unknown.

INTERPRETATIONS OF DATA. Not very strict and often vague procedures that use gathered data as an indication that a specific event may have occurred or a specific object exists, and other such claims.

INTRINSIC NATURAL PROCESS. Natural processes that are hidden from direct verification and that mirror certain specific human mental processes.

INTRINSIC ULTRANATURAL PROCESS. These are processes within the pure NSP-world that when restricted to the Natural world become intrinsic Natural processes.

INTRINSIC ULTRANATURAL SELECTION. This is the process within the NSP-world that when restricted to the Natural world mirrors the human procedure of selecting finitely many objects from a collection of objects.

IUN-PROCESS. An abbreviation for the phrase "intrinsic ultranatural process."

IUN-SELECTION. An abbreviation for the phrase "intrinsic ultranatural selection."

LABORATORY SCIENTISTS. Scientists that use the Natural laws as they are understand to operate today and apply strictly defined procedures within a laboratory setting. Such scientists, usually, do not extrapolate their conclusions backward in time.

LINGUISTIC INTERPRETATION. A correspondence between certain processes and objects used within or associated with the science of linguistics, and a special mathematical structure - the extended G-structure.

LOGIC COMPUTER. A computer that can take a finite collection of statements and using a specific program (i.e. set of rules) produce the same written statements that can be produced by the human mind using the same set of rules.

MA-MODEL. An abbreviation for the phrase "metamorphic-anamorphosis model." This is a collection of statements written in a physical-like language that gives a description for processes and objects that exist logically in the NSP-world and that produce universes or alter their development. The MA-model can also be used for other purposes.

MATHEMATICAL MODELING. This is a technical process that associates words from a discipline language with words that appear within a mathematical theory.

METAMORPHIC. This means a special type of sudden or instantaneous change where such a change is instantaneous only from a Natural world viewpoint.

N-EVENT. An abbreviation for the phrase "Natural event."

N-OBJECT. An abbreviation for the phrase "Natural object."

N-PROCESS. An abbreviation for the phrase "Natural process."

NATURAL EVENT. An event that is assumed to take place within our universe.

NATURAL INITIAL CONDITIONS. Described conditions that must occur (or must be met) before a Natural event can occur. Initial conditions also can differentiate one Natural event from another distinct Natural event.

NONSTANDARD PHYSICAL WORLD MODEL. This is a theory that uses physical-like terms in such a way that each of the physical-like terms corresponds to a term within a mathematical theory. The term nonstandard refers to the special mathematical theory to which the physical-like terms correspond. The MA-model is a portion of this theory.

NSP-WORLD MODEL. An abbreviation for the phrase "nonstandard physical world model."

OBJECTIVE REALITY. This is the assumed reality that exists outside of the mind and, thus, outside of the imagination.

PARAMETER. Can take on various meanings. It can be a catalyst or a quantity which must be known and inserted into a physical theory before that theory will predict Natural system behavior specifically.

PARTICLE RADIATION. This is similar to electromagnetic radiation except that it is assumed that the radiating entities can be characterized as particles.

PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION. Taking data gathered by human beings or machines and associating this data with terms taken from a language that employs terms called physical terms. Physical terms are often assumed to name processes and entities within our universe. This also means the construction of a mathematical model by associating physical terms with abstract mathematical entities.

PHYSICAL STRING. An assumed fundamental physical object for which, at present, there can be no direct or indirect laboratory verification.

PHYSICAL THEORY. All of the logically deducible results that one can obtain from a fixed set of statements written in physical terms.

PREDICTION. Another name for a deductive conclusion obtained from physical hypotheses. Sometime, a conclusion within a physical theory that might be directly measured within a laboratory setting.

POSITIVE STATEMENTS. These are scientific statements presented in such manner that they have a content that implies that what is being described is true in reality.

PURE NSP-WORLD. This is composed of all things that are in the NSP-world and not in the Natural world.

STRING (Physical). An invisible and assumed fundamental building block of matter.

RANDOM. Certain physical behavior for a specific physical object that cannot be predicted from a physical theory specifically. This is a theory related concept. Absolute randomness is a philosophical concept that claims that there are no physical laws that govern specific behavior, only general statistical laws. And, hence, there is no physical theory that can ever be devised that will predict specific behavior for certain physical objects.

REALISM. The selection of entities within a mathematical theory as representing objects that are claimed to exists in reality. Absolute realism is the philosophy that all entities within a mathematical structure correspond to real physical objects.

REDUCTIONISM. The philosophy that all, microscope, macroscopic and large scale physical behavior is produced from a finite collection of physical objects and fundamental interactions that exist and operate on the subatomic microscopic level.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD. The so-called but often vague and distinct procedures that scientists are supposed to use to obtain their written conclusions.

SCIENTISM. The philosophy that claims that everything that can be known about anything within the universe in which we dwell can be known by application of the scientific method.

SELF-EVIDENT STATEMENT. Statements that are made and accepted without any form of verification by a specific group of scholars.

SIGNATURE. This is an observable portion of an effect that allows one to determine which cause produced this specific effect.

SIMULTANEOUS FAR-ACTION. See action-at-a-distance.

SMALL TO LARGE. The philosophy that certain microscopic, macroscopic and large scale Natural objects are obtained by means of the combining together of "smaller" objects.

STANDARD MODEL. This is the Big Band model although there are some variations.

STRING OF SYMBOLS. Basically these are but marks that are written down on any appropriate surface. Like the marks that appear between the B and the . of the previous sentence. However, today, this would include almost all forms of human perception since such marks can lead to the replication of much of what we perceive with our senses.

SUBJECTIVE. Within the mind or imagination.

SUBNATURAL SYSTEM. The same meaning as a Natural system except that this type of Natural system is recognized as a portion of another Natural system.

SUBPARTICLE. A pure NSP-world object that can be shown to exist logically. They have many properties that can be described and many properties that cannot be described. They should not be thought of as particles, however. A better name would be "things."

SUBSTRATUM UNIVERSE. The same as a background universe. In general, the term substratum means a declared basic foundation that is contained in a "larger" something. In this case, this is a basic foundation for universes and, contrary to the general meaning of substratum, the universes are contained in the substratum universe.

SUDDEN APPEARANCE. With respect to time, this is the sudden or abrupt appearance of a complex Natural object or process where such an object or processes was not present previously. Such sudden appearance is a logical NSP-world possibility.

SUDDEN CHANGE. Also called abrupt change. These are changes that occur in the behavior in a Natural system that appear to be discontinuous in character. The may appear to occur instantaneously. The change need not be sudden as viewed from the NSP-world.

TECHNICAL LANGUAGE. A language that one learns when one studies a distinct discipline and used for the special concepts within that discipline.

THEORY. This is the entire set of conclusions that can be deduced logically from a set of premises.

TIME FRACTURE. A specific moment during the development of a Natural system when Natural time, if it existed prior to this time, is suspended and processes within the NSP-world alter the development of such a Natural system. (Note that such a specific moment can also correspond to a specific temperature or other similar parameter.) This NSP-world process takes place during allowable NSP-world time. If there is no Natural time reference for the fracture, then this fracture is called an ultra-fracture and if it is within an ordered sequence of events, then it corresponds to a specific universal event number.

THING. See subparticle.

ULTIMATE ULTRAWORD. A single object that exists logically within the pure NSP-world and that is used to form all of the Natural systems that comprise an entire universe.

ULTRA. A prefix used to distinguish NSP-world processes and objects from similar sounding Natural world processes or objects. However, each of the objects or processes so distinguished does have one or more properties in common with the process or object named by the term following the prefix ultra.

ULTRAFAST. This is a characterization associated with certain pure NSP-world subparticles. This characterization indicates that such subparticles can traverse, within the NSP-world, from one point within our universe to any other point within our universe without expending any Natural time.

ULTRALOGIC. This is the force-like pure NSP-world process that when applied to an ultraword produces any Natural system including an entire universe. It also produces subparticles.

ULTRANATURAL EVENT. An event that takes place within the pure NSP-world. This event, usually, effects indirectly Natural events. Detailed information about such events cannot be described in any language used by any entity within the Natural universe.

ULTRANATURAL INITIAL CONDITIONS. The same as Natural initial conditions, but these conditions must be met within the pure NSP-world.

ULTRANATURAL LAWS. This term has the same meaning as the expression Natural laws. But these fixed processes take place within the pure NSP-world.

ULTRANATURAL OBJECT. An object with is contained in the pure NSP-world.

ULTRASUBPARTICLE. These are entities within the MA-model that are essentially of a single type. These entities can be used to construct all of the fundamental constituents of our universe, including "empty" space, by means of a simple finite-like "gathering together" process.

ULTRASMOOTH. A process that can be characterized by the smooth pattern of the curved portion of the diagram ~. However, this process would still appear to have such a smooth pattern even if view through a microscope of infinite power.

ULTRAUNIFORM. An extremely fine step-by-step process. So fine that it would not appear to be broken into disjoint pieces even if viewed through a microscope of infinite power.

ULTRAWORD. An unusual object that exists logically within the pure NSP-world and contains all of the necessary concepts, laws, building plains and the like that control the formation and the properties of a specific Natural system. It is this object that a specific ultralogic acts upon to produce a Natural system.

UN-EVENT. Abbreviation for the phrase "ultranatural event."

UN-LAWS. An abbreviation for the phrase "ultranatural laws."

UN-OBJECT. An abbreviation for the phrase "ultranatural object."

VIRTUAL (PARTICLE OR PROCESS). These are subatomic objects or processes that many quantum physicists believe exist in reality that mediate interactions between other objects but are not themselves detectable due to the time span over which they exist. Or they can simply be members of a list that states that such and such object or process is virtual relative to a specific interaction. (There are other more technical definitions.)

Return to contents page.