The Fourth Age of the World

190. On the 15th day of the 1st month (Tuesday, May 5th) at midnight, the firstborn of all Egypt were slain. Pharaoh and his servants, quickly sent away the Israelites with all their goods and the plunder which they had received from the Egyptians. Ex 12:33,35,36 It was exactly 430 years from the first pilgrimage of Abraham's departure from Canaan, to the day they were set free from bondage. The day after the Passover, they journeyed toward Ramesses with about 600,000 men, besides women and children. Ex 12:29-31,37,41,51 Nu 33:3 From that place the camps are recorded by Moses. From the Hebrew meanings of the words, Jerome, in writing to Fabiola, expounds symbolically, in his Treatise of their 42 camps. I suppose the first camp to be at Ramesses. Thus then:

1. At Ramesses, where the Israelites were placed by Joseph, Ge 47:11, they all met who either dwelt among the Egyptians Ex 3:2 or who at that time were scattered over all Egypt to gather stubble. Ex 5:12

2. At Succoth, Moses first declared to them the commandments of God for the yearly keeping of the Passover and the sanctifying of the firstborn. Ex 13:1-22

3. At Etham, in the border of the wilderness, the Lord led them with a pillar of a cloud by day and in a pillar of fire by night. Ex 13:20,21

4. At Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baalzephon, Pharaoh, with his host overtook them. Here Moses divided the waters with his rod and they passed through the midst of the Trythraean, or Red Sea into the desert of Etham. When Pharaoh and his army tried to follow, they were all drowned when the waters came together again. At dawn, the Israelites were completely freed from the bondage of the Egyptians, whose bodies they saw floating all over the sea and cast up on the shore. Ex 14:26-30 They sang a song of praise and thanksgiving to God, for their deliverance. Ex 15:22 This song Re 15:3 is called the Song of Moses and is the first song of deliverance by the Hebrews.

This happened on the 21st day of the first month on the last day of the feast of unleavened bread, as appointed by God. This is the general opinion of the Jews and most agreeable to truth.

From there they marched three whole days through the wilderness of Etham, from Tuesday the 22nd to Thursday the 24th and they found no water all the way. Ex 15:22 Nu 33:8

5. At Marah, named from its bitter waters, the people which had gone without water three whole days, began to murmur. Moses threw into the water a piece of wood and made them drinkable. This taught the people in time to come to put their trust in God, Ex 15:23,26

6. At Elim were 12 fountains of water and 70 palm trees. They camped by the side of those fountains. Ex 15:27 Nu 33:9

7. This camp was by the Red Sea. Nu 33:10

191. Now we come to the second month.

8. Upon the 15th, (Thursday, June 4th) the Israelites came to the place of their eighth camp in the wilderness of Sin, between Elyma and Sinai. Being hungry they murmured against God and their leaders. About evening, God sent them quails and the next morning rained on them manna from heaven. They lived on manna for 40 years, until they entered the land of promise. Ex 16:1-35

9. They camped at Dophkah.

10. They camped at Alush.

11. At Rephidim the people murmured again because of thirst. (This place was called Meribah and Massa.) Moses gave them water by striking the hard rock with his rod. Ex 17:1,7 This Rock followed them throughout the wilderness. Ps 78:16,20 105:41 1Co 10:4 De 8:15

The Amalekites attacked the rear of the Israelites who were all weary and tired from their long journey in the wilderness. They killed some of the stragglers and weakest of them. Moses sent out to fight with them Jehosua or Joshua the son of Nun his servant. Ex 33:11 His proper name was Hosea but Moses changed it to Jehosuah. Nu 13:16 or Jesus. Na 8:17 Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8

Joshua fought and defeated the Amalekites in Rephidim while Moses prayed on top of the hill. The people were commanded by God to utterly destroy and root out that whole nation. For a memorial of this battle they built an altar there. De 25:17-19 Ex 17:8-16

192. The third month.

12. In the Desert of Sinai, the Israelites camped opposite Horeb and stayed there almost a whole year. They left the wilderness of Sinai, on the 2nd day of the 2nd month, of the 2nd year after coming out of the land of Egypt. Nu 10:11,12 They came here on the same day of the 3rd month, of the 1st year, after coming out of Egypt. This was on the third day of the third month (Monday, June 22nd) according to Fr. Ribera, l. 5. de Templo. Ex 19:1

193. When Moses went up into the mount, God declared to him that he would renew his covenant with the Israelites. He would bind them to himself by a law and that he would favour and love all those who would observe and keep that law. This they readily agreed to. God gave them two days to prepare and sanctify themselves to receive that law. He forbid all except Moses and Aaron to approach the mount. Afterward in great majesty God came down to the mount as they all watched and trembled at the sight. Ex 19:1-25

194. God proclaimed his law as contained in the ten commandments with a terrible voice. Ex 20:1-26 De 5:1-33 This did not make void the promise of grace made to Abraham 430 years before.Ga 3:17

195. The people were terrified as God gave them many other laws. Ex 20:21-23 De 4:13,14 These were written in the book of the covenant Moses gave to the people. After this Moses rose early in the morning and he built an altar at the foot of the mountain. He set up 12 pillars according to the 12 tribes of Israel. He sent 12 young men of the firstborn (as the Chaldee paraphrases it) whom the Lord had consecrated to himself Ex 24:4 Nu 3:13 8:16,17 to be ministers of those holy things. Ex 19:22 This was before the Levitical priesthood was ordained. These men offered sacrifices, first for sin, and then of thanksgiving to the Lord. Moses read the book of the covenant to the people which contained the commandments found in Ex 20:1-23:33. He then took the blood of the calves and goats that were offered and with water scarlet wool and hyssop, he sprinkled the book as well as 12 pillars representing the 12 tribes of Israel. This ratified that solemn covenant between God and his people. Ex 24:3-8 Heb 9:19,20

196. Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and 70 men of the elders of Israel, went up into the mount and there beheld the glory of God. When the rest returned, Moses, with his servant Joshua, stayed there for six more days. On the seventh day God spoke to Moses and he continued there 40 days and 40 nights Ex 24:9-18 This time includes those six days which he spent waiting for the Lord. During this time, he ate no meat nor drank water. De 9:9 He received God's commands concerning the construction of the tabernacle, the priests garments, their consecration, sacrifices and other things as related in Ex 25:1-Ex 31:18.

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197. The fourth month.

198. When those 40 days and 40 nights were over, God gave Moses the two tables of the law in stone written by God's own finger. Ex 31:18 De 9:10,11 God ordered him to go down quickly, for the people had already made a molten calf to worship. Moses by prayer pacified God and went down from the mount. When he saw the people keeping a festival in honour of their idol in the camp, he broke the tables of the law at the foot of the mount. Ever since this, the Jews keep a solemn fast to this day on the 14th day of the 4th month. This has led some men into the error that the 40 days of Moses in the mount, are to be started from the day immediately following the giving of the ten commandments. Thus omitting altogether the intermediate time, spent in writing and reading the book of the covenant and sanctifying the covenant made between God and his people with solemn rites and ceremonies. Ex 24:1-18

199. Moses burnt and defaced the idol and the Levites killed 3,000 of the people. Ex 32:20-29 De 9:21 33:9

200. The next day Moses returned again into the mount and there again entreated the Lord for the people. Ex 32:30-32

201. He commanded them to lay aside their gorgeous apparel and to set up the tent of the congregation outside the camp. This tent was used until the tabernacle was built by Bezaleel. The people out of a deep sense of God's wrath, repented of their sins. Moses prayed that God himself should be their guide and leader in their way and not an angel. This prayer was heard. Ex 33 1-23

202. God commanded Moses to get new tables of stone and to bring them with him into the mount the next day. Moses brought them the next morning. When Moses stood in the cleft of a rock, God passed by and showed him a glimpse of his glory. Ex 34:1-35

203. Again Moses stayed another 40 days and 40 nights in the mount without meat or drink and prayed for the people. De 9:18 10:10 God was appeased and renewed his covenant with the people with certain conditions. He gave his laws again and told Moses to write them down. Again, God himself wrote the ten commandments in the tables which Moses brought to him. Ex 34:10-28

204. The sixth month.

205. After 40 days, Moses returned from the mount with the tables in his hand. Because his face shone, he covered it with a vail. He proclaimed the laws of God to the people, ordering the observation of the Sabbath. He asked for a free will offering to be made toward the building of the tabernacle. Ex 34:1-35:35

206. So that this offering could be done in an orderly manner, all males were numbered from 20 years old and upward and they were found to be 603,550. According to the law prescribed by God, Ex 30:12,13 each contributed half a shekel. The total sum amounted to 100 talents of silver and 1775 shekels Ex 38:25,26. Hence it is gathered, that every talent among the Jews, amounted to 3000 shekels: every pound containing 60 shekels. Eze 45:12. In addition to this pole tax, from the voluntary offering was the sum of 29 talents of gold, and 730 shekels; and of brass, 70 talents and 2400 shekels. Ex 38:24,29 As for other materials needed for the tabernacle, there came in more than enough and the people were commanded to stop giving! Ex 36:5-7

207. Bezaleel and Aholiab were appointed by God for the chief workmen of the tabernacle. Ex 31:2-6 35:30-35

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208. In the first six months of this year the tabernacle, the ark of the covenant, the altar, the table of shewbread, the priest's garments, the holy ointments, the candle sticks and other utensils and vessels belonging to the sacrifices, were finished in the desert at Mount Sinai and were brought to Moses. Ex 36:1-39:43

209. God commanded Moses to:

1. On the first day of the second month he should set up the tabernacle and furnish it with all things belonging to it.Ex 4:2,8

2. He should anoint them with holy oil and should consecrate Aaron and his sons for the priesthood, Ex 9:15

210. He did this but not both activities the same time. For upon the very day God appointed, he erected the tabernacle, with all things belonging to it. Ex 40:17,33 The second command he performed later at a time appointed by God. Le 8:1-13 It took seven days for the consecration of the priests and altar. Ex 29:35-37

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211. On the first day of the first month (Wednesday, April 21st) of the second year after they left Egypt, the tabernacle of the covenant was set up and filled with the glory of God. Ex 40:2,17,34 From it God uttered his will and commandments to Moses. These are recorded in the first 7 chapters of Leviticus. In the same year and first month, the Israelites, as commanded by God, celebrated the passover at the evening of the 14th day. (Tuesday, May 4th) On this day some of the people complained to Moses and Aaron that they could not keep the passover with the rest of the congregation on the appointed day because they were unclean from touching a dead body. God made a law that all such persons should keep their passover on the 14th day of the second month if they could not keep it on the day first appointed. Nu 9:1,14

212. On the first day of the second month (Friday, May 21st) God commanded Moses to take the number of all the males of the children of Israel from 20 years old to 60 by their tribes, except the Levites. He appointed the Levites for the service of the tabernacle and assigned the responsibilities for setting it up, taking it down and moving and carrying it from place to place. Nu 1:1 26:64

213. The census came to 603,550 Nu 10:1,46 the same number as 7 months earlier, when they were taxed for a contribution to the building of the tabernacle. Ex 38:26

214. Moses, according to God's command, Ex 29:37 30:22,30 40:9,25 anointed the tabernacle and the altar with all things in it with the holy oil, consecrating them to the Lord. He also consecrated Aaron and his four sons with the same oil and with rites and ceremonies necessary for the execution of the priestly office. He commanded them not to stay in the tabernacle for seven days. Le 8:1-36 This was the time required for the consecration of them and the altar. Ex 29:35-37 Le 8:33

215. Moses outlined the order and position of the tribes in their march and encampments Nu 2:1-34

216. The number of Levites from one month old and upward, was found to be 22,300. Nu 3:15,35 The 2200 firstborn of the Levites managed the service of God in lieu the firstborn of Israel. The number of the firstborn of the children of Israel, exceeded the whole number of the Levites (their firstborn deducted) by 273. Therefore they were taxed for every additional person, five shekels for redemption money. Nu 3:39-50

217. The Levites were set apart and consecrated to God for his service. Every man was appointed a certain time when he was to perform his ministry. Nu 8:5-26

218. 8580 Levites were between 30 and 50 years old. Their offices and services were assigned among them according to their families. Nu 4:1-49

219. All leprous and unclean persons were put out of the camp. The laws for restoring of damages and of jealousy were ordained. Nu 5:1-31

220. The vow, the consecration and manner of the Nazarites was instituted. Nu 6:1-27

221. Upon the 8th day following the completion of the consecration, Aaron offered sacrifices and oblations, first for himself and then for all the people. All these offerings consumed by fire that fell from heaven upon them. This sign ensured belief of the people that the priestly office among them was ordained by God himself. Le 9:1-24

222. All the tabernacle was completely set up and anointed all over, together with the utensils and things belonging to it. The altar which had been consecrated for 7 days, was now dedicated by Aaron by his first oblation of sacrifices made on it. The seven previous days were for expiation, or cleaning and ordained for the hallowing of the altar. Ex 29:36,37

223. The heads of the tribes brought six covered wagons and twelve oxen, and jointly offered them before the tabernacle. All this was given to the Levites, the sons of Gershon and Merari for their duties. Every day leaders of the tribes brought their various sacrifices and things belonging to the ministry of the tabernacle and offered them towards the dedication of it. This took twelve days. Nu 7:1-11,84,88

224. On this first day, Naasson, (from whom David and according to the flesh, Jesus Christ himself) came and made his offering for the tribes of Judah. Then the rest, every one for his tribe, according to the order as they were ranked in their camps, made offerings. Nu 7:11-83

225. Nadab and Abihu were Aaron's two oldest sons who had gone with their father up into the Mount Sinai and saw the glory of God there. Ex 24:1,9,10 They went into the sanctuary with strange or common fire. This was not that fire which fell from heaven, Le 9:24 and which was perpetually to be kept alive and continued for the burning of the sacrifices and incense in times to come. They were struck dead in the place by fire sent from heaven. Le 10:1,9 Nu 3:2-4,26,60,61 The priests were forbidden to make lamentation for them. Moreover for their neglect of duty, all the priests were ordered to abstain from wine and strong drink before they were to go into the tabernacle. A law also was made, that what was left of the sacrifices should be eaten by the priests. Aaron's excuse for not doing this was allowed by Moses. Le 10:6-20

226. Upon this occasion the law was made (about the tenth day of this month, as it seems) that only the high priest should enter into the sanctuary once in a year. This was only to be on the day of atonement and the general fast which was to be kept on the 10th day of the seventh month. Le 16:1-34

227. On the 14th of this month, (Thursday, June 3rd) at evening, the passover was to be celebrated by those who were unable to keep it a month earlier because of their uncleanness Nu 9:1-24

228. By God's command, this blasphemous person, was carried out of the camp, and stoned. Le 24:10-13

229. All the laws contained in the 17 last chapters of Leviticus seem to have been made in this month.

230. God commanded two silver trumpets to be made, to call the congregation together for the times of their moving and marching and sacrificing. Nu 10:1-28

231. Jethro, who was also called Hobab, brought his daughter Zipporah, with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer who were left with him, to Moses, his son-in-law. He congratulated him and the people for their deliverance from Egyptian bondage. He publicly declared both by word and deed, his faith and devotion toward the true God. By his advise, Moses delegated the government of the people to some others and ordained magistrates for the deciding of lesser issues. Ex 18:1-27 De 1:9-18 Nu 10:29

232. The 19th day of this month seems to have been the last day that the 12 leaders of the tribes made their oblations for the dedication of the altar. This day Ahira made his offering for the tribe of Naphtali. Nu 7:78,88

233. On the 20th day of the second month (Wednesday, June 9th) God commanded the Israelites to break camp and to start their journey to take possession of the promised land. Nu 10:11,12 De 1:6,7 Moses asked Jethro to go along with him, but he refused and returned home. Nu 9:29,30 Ex 18:27

234. The cloud rose from the tabernacle and they arranged themselves into four squadrons, or battalions and marched from Sinai. They had been there almost a year. After 3 days journey they came to the wilderness of Paran, Nu 10:12,33 where they stayed and rested for 23 days.

13. At their 13th camp, at a place called Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 33:16 some who murmured were struck with fire from heaven. Hence that place was called Tabor. They were saved by the intercession of Moses yet again murmured and provoked God by their loathing of manna and desiring of flesh to eat. Nu 11:1-10 Ps 78:19-21

235. Moses complained to God of the great burden of this government and desired to be relieved from it. God chose 70 elders to help him. Two of these, Eldad and Medad, prophesied in the camp. Nu 11:10-17,24-30

236. God gave the people quails for a whole month, not just for a day as he did the year before. Ex 16:12,13 He sent a most grievous plague among them. From the graves of those who lusted, that place was called, Kibrothhattaavah, Nu 11:31-34 Ps 78:26-31 Ps 106:15

14. The fourteenth camp was at Hazeroth. Nu 11:35 33:17 Miriam and Aaron spoke evil of Moses their brother because he had married a woman of Ethiopia. Zipporah his wife was from Madian, which was a part of the Eastern Ethiopia, otherwise called Arabia. They made themselves equal in all points with him. God honoured Moses more than they and struck Miriam with leprosy. She was sent outside of the camp. At the prayer of Moses, she was healed after seven days. Nu 12:1-15 De 24:9

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237. Miriam was cleansed some time during the 4th month. After she returned to camp, the Israelites left that place.

15. They camped in Hazeroth, in the desert of Paran, Nu 12:6 33:18 near Kadeshbarnea, Nu 13:26

238. On the fifth month.

239. From the wilderness of Paran, Nu 13:3 or Kadeshbarnea, Nu 32:8 De 1:19,22 9:23 Jos 14:7 at the time of ripened grapes, God commanded Moses to send 12 spies from every tribe Nu 13:1,2to thoroughly spy out the land. Moses and the people were agreeable to this plan. De 1:22,23 Among these men was 40 year old Caleb, the son of Jephunneh (of the tribe of Judah) Jos 14:7 and Oshea (the son of Nun, whom Moses called Joshua, from the tribe of Ephraim. These men entered the land from the south by the desert of Sin, passing through to the very northern part to Rehob. Nu 13:21,22 De 1:23

240. The sixth month.

241. The spies spent 40 days in searching out the land and returned to Kadesh in the wilderness of Paran. They brought one branch of a vine with a cluster of grapes on it gathered from the valley of Eshcol. This valley was named for its pomegranates and figs. Nu 13:23-27 De 4:24,25 This likely happened before the 7th month before the feast of tabernacles. This feast was kept on the 15th day of that month when the fruits of the barn and winepress, were always gathered. Ex 23:16 Le 23:39 De 16:13 Ten of the twelve men spoke ill of the country and its barrenness, magnifying the city's strength and the giants living there. This discouraged the people from marching any further toward it. However, Caleb did all he could, to persuade the people to go on. Nu 13:28-33 32:9

242. The people were terrified by the report made by the rest and threatened to return again to Egypt. They were ready to stone Caleb and Joshua for their conflicting report. When God threatened the people with sudden destruction, Moses again prayed and their lives were spared. However, God declared that all of them who were over 20 years old would die in the wilderness and would never see the promised land but wander in the wilderness for forty years. Nu 14:1-35 26:64,65 32:10-13 De 1:26-36 9:23 Jos 5:6 Ps 95:8-11 106:24-26 Their children entered the promised land in the 39th year. Nu 32:13 De 2:14

243. God destroyed the 10 rebellious spies by sudden death. Nu 14:36,37 In memory of this event, the Jews keep a fast on the seventh day of the sixth month, called Elul.

244. God commanded them to break camp and return back into the desert near the Red Sea. Instead they disobeyed him by going forward into the mountain and were pursued all the way to Hormah and defeated by the Amalekites and Canaanites. Therefore they sat down and wept before the Lord, but he would not hear them. Nu 14:40-45 De 1:40-45

245. After this incident, as the Israelites continued to die in the wilderness, Moses composed the 90th Psalm, Lord thou hast been our refuge, &c. He also showed that the normal age of men was reduced to 70 or 80 years. Therefore,

246. The age of man was shortened to a third of what it was before

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247. The Israelites continued in Kadesh many days. De 1:46 For whether it was for a day, a month, or a year, as long as the cloud continued over the tabernacle, the camp did not move. Nu 9:22 In some places the camp stayed for many years since in the 37 years there were only 17 camps mentioned. After leaving Kadesh, they returned into the wilderness toward the Red Sea and camped around the hill country of Seir many days. De 2:1 Jud 11:16 The 17 camps for this time in the wilderness of Seir were mentioned in the 33rd chapter of Numbers in this order:

16th at Rimmonparez
17th at Libnah
18th at Rissah
19th at Kehelathah
20th at Mount Shapher
21st at Haradah
22nd at Makheloth
23rd at Thahash
24th at Thara
25th at Mithcah
26th at Hashmonah
27th at Moseroth
28th at Benehaajan, or Beeroth Bene Jaakan of the well of the sons of Jaakan De 10:6
29th at Horhagidgad, or Gudgodah, De 10:7
30th at Jotbathah, a place full of springs of water, De 10:7
31st was Ebronah
32nd was Eziongaber, which is near to Eloth and by the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of Edom 1Ki 9:26

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248. The only mention of these camps are the laws and historical events as recorded in Nu 15:1-19:22.

1. Nu 15:1-41 A man was stoned by God's command for gathering sticks on the Sabbath. Although the sacrifices were omitted in the wilderness, yet the Sabbath was kept.

2. Nu 16:1-50 Korah, Dathan and Abiram rebelled against Moses and Aaron. They were swallowed alive into the earth. When 250 of their associates offered incense, God destroyed them by fire. God commanded their censors to be taken and used for a covering for the alter. This was for a memorial of them to the children of Israel. The people murmured against Moses and Aaron for this calamity and God killed 14700 of them.

3. Nu 17:1:13 The twelve rods were brought by the twelve princes and laid in the sanctuary. Aaron's rod was the only one that budded and brought forth almonds. It was set before the ark, for a warning against any future rebellions.

249. All these events are thought to have happened in the later half of the second year after they left the land of Egypt. Moses wrote only what happened in the first two years and the last year of their travel in the wilderness. For the intervening events of those 37 years see Abulensis, upon Numb. cap 1. Quast. 3.

250. The scriptures also show that the time, which the Israelites spent in travelling from Kadeshbarnea, till they passed the vale, or brook Zedad, was half a year after they moved from their 32nd camp. Another half year elapsed before they passed the river Jordan making up the full 38 years. During this time, all those ungodly rebels perished. De 2:14-16

251. For the first 9 years the Israelites spent in the wilderness, Armais governed in Egypt and Sethosis invaded the East. Both were brothers and sons of Amenophis who drowned in the Red Sea as before noted in the item under 2494 AM. Manetho in his Egyptiaca, mentioned by Josephus in his first book against Apion, wrote:

``Sethosis was well equipped with cavalry and ships and made his brother Armais ruler over all Egypt. He let Armais use all power and authority there except he was not to wear a crown and he charged him not to dishonour his wife the Queen and mother of his children. Armais was also told to abstain from all other concubines of the king. Sethosis himself however made war in Cyprus and Phoenicia and against the Assyrians and the Medes. Some of these he subdued by his powerful army and others he overtook merely caused by the terror his reputation. Puffed up with this great success near home, he went on with greater confidence to ravage and spoil all the kingdoms and countries of the East. A few years after he was gone, Armais whom he left in Egypt, having no fear, did everything the king commanded him not to do. First, he misused the queen and lay continually with the king's concubines. Later, he followed the advice of his friends and wore the crown, plainly rebelling against his brother.''

252. Thus Manetho adds:

``Armais, was Danaus; and Sethosis was also called Egyptus,''

253. and that Egypt was named after him. Ramesses, was named after his grandfather showing that these similar names and events reveal that Tacitus calls him Rhamses and Herodotus, Sesostris. Tacitus says:

``A king called Rhamses, conquered all Libya, Ethiopia, the Medes and Persians, Bactria, Scythia and all the lands which the Syrians and Armenians and the Cappadocians held along with Bithynia and Lycia, by the Mediterranean Sea:''

254. Tacitus records him under the name of Rhamses. Regarding Sesostris, Herodotus in his second book writes that their Egyptian priests say:

``He was the first, to bring all nations bordering the Red Sea under his subjection sailing by way of the Arabian gulf. He came back the same way and gathered a mighty army. Marching into the continent of Asia, he subdued all the nations which stood in his way. Leaving Asia he crossed into Europe and conquered the Scythians and Thracians. It seems he went no further because the marks and monuments of his name and victories are found in Palestine of Syria. Two monuments are in Ionia, one at Ephesus, as you go into Phoencea, another one is on the way leading from Sardis to Smyrna.''

255. A similar report comes from Diodorus Siculus, of Sesoosis l. 2. but he makes him far more ancient than this. The age of his brother Danaus proves that he was contemporary with Moses. Manetho and Diodorus record the timing of these events nearly the same. They indicate that at the time all foreigners were expelled from Egypt, Danaus and Cadmus, with their companies came into Greece and Moses with his company went into Judea. This we find in the Selections of Phoisus. For the better understanding this 37 year period we include events from Eusebius in his "Tables" as follows:

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256. Egypt (which was formerly called Aeria) was named after Egyptus who was there made king after the expulsion of his brother, Danaus. Our account varies only two years from that of Eusibius for:

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257. Egyptus was also called Ramesses and Sesostris and Sesoosis. After spending 9 years in many voyages and foreign wars, (as Diodorus Siculus states in his first book) he returned to Pelusium. During this time Armais, who was also called Danaus ruled over Egypt. He first attempted to poison his brother Egyptus at a banquet provided for him but failed in the attempt as both Herodotus l. 2. c. 107. and also Diodorus Siculus l. 1. p. 53. (in the Greek and Latin edition of him) testifies. At which time he fled for fear of his brother from the kingdom which he had in Egypt and came into Greece, (as Georgius Syncillus states in the Greek Eusebius, published by Scanger, page 26,27.)

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258. When Danaus came into Greece, he made himself ruler of Argos and made it abound with waters. Danaus by his 50 daughters, destroyed the 50 sons of his brother Egyptus except only his son Lynceus who reigned after him at Argos.

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259. Busiris the son of Neptunus and Libya the daughter of Epaphus, were joint tyrants in the area next to the Nile river. He barbarously murdered all strangers who passed that way and fell into his hands. Ovid. (lib. 3. de Tristi.) asked who was more cruel than Busiris? Virgil, (3. Georg.) queried who had not heard of Eurystheus' hard heart? The altars by the unworthy Busiris reared were indeed unworthy to be defended. Much more unworthy he was to have been commended by any man, which yet was his lot to be, according to Socrates the orator, in his, Busiridis Encomium. On this (as after him, also Eusebius did) state that he was the son of Libya, the daughter of Epaphus and Neptunus. Note that this Ramesses, surnamed Myamun, (of whom I spake, in the year of the world 2427) was by mythological writers, surnamed Neptunus and was the man who commanded the new born infants of the Hebrews to be drowned. He had two sons, Amenopis, i.e. Belus of Egypt (the father of Egyptus and Danaus). He was that enemy of the Almighty God and was drowned in the Red Sea with his army. He had a son Busiris who was so infamous for butchering strangers, (a fitting offspring for such a father) that succeeded him. On this from A. Gellio, l. 15. c. 21. that the poets were inclined to call men who were barbarous, cruel and devoid of humanity, the sons of Neptune who was born of that merciless element, the sea.

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260. According to Eusebius in these times Tat the son of Hermes Trismegistes lived. The Egyptians say that Sesostris learned his wisdom from this Hermes. (Elian, l. 12. Var. Histor. c.4.)

2549 AM, 3259 JP, 1455 BC

261. Cadmus and Phenix went from Thebez in Egypt into Syria and founded the kingdom in Tyre and Sidon. Eusib. Chron.

2552b AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC

262. After the Israelites had wandered around the hill country of Seir and Edom for 37 years, they went from Kadeshbarnea to Eziongaber in Edom. Travelling from the north to the south to the shore of the Red Sea, God then commanded them to turn northward and march straight for the land of promise. When the land of Edom lay directly in their way, he ordered them that they should not fight with the Edomites because they were brothers. God told them how great was his providence and care toward them in preserving them for 40 years in the wilderness. De 2:1-7 He used the round number of 40 for the actual time of 39 years.

2552c AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC

263. In the first month of the 40th year, after they left Egypt, the Israelites came into the wilderness of Zin and camped there.

33. They camped at Kadesh Nu 20:1 33:36-38 Jud 11:17 of Zin, near the border of Edom, Nu 20:14,15 towards Eziongaber and the Red Sea. This was not at Kadeshbarnea, where they made their 15th camp and which lay near the border of Canaan, toward the south. Nu 34:4 Jos 15:3

264. Miriam died Nu 21:1 here 4 months before her brother Aaron, and 11 months before her brother Moses. She was the oldest of the three and lived 130 years as appears, Ex 2:4,7 so that she was a pretty mature maiden when Moses was born. This was noted before upon the year of the world, 2433. The Jews to this very day keep the memory of her death upon the tenth of the first month.

265. Again the people complained to Moses and Aaron for lack of water. God commanded to call water out of the hard rock, only by speaking to it. Through impatience and diffidence to God's command, Moses spoke something unadvisedly with his lips and struck the rock twice with Aaron's rod. This was the rod that budded and blossomed. He drew water from it as he had drawn out of another rock, 37 years earlier. Ex 17:7 For this occasion the place was called Meribah, or waters of strife. Nu 20:2-13. For it is most likely, that the former water, which Tertullian called, Aquam Comtiem, the water that followed them, (mentioned in the eleventh encampment) was swallowed up in the Red Sea. In this second time of want of water, the children complained just like their fathers did many years before.

266. Moses and Aaron for their diffidence and unbelief in executing the commandment of God were not allowed to enter into the land of Canaan. Nu 20:23,24 27:14 Ps 106:32,33

267. The Israelites sent messengers to the Edomites and Moabites asking to pass through their land. They refused to let them pass through their countries, Nu 20:14-20 Jud 11:17 but allowed them to pass along their borders. De 2:4,6,29 On this occasion, they stayed a while at Kadesh, Jud 11:17 then went forward again.

34. The 34th camp was in mount Hor, on the borders of Edom, Nu 20:22,23 or Mosera, De 10:6. To this place the Israelites are said to have come when they left Beeroth Bene Jaakan, or the wells of the sons of Jaakan, their 28th camp. They camped in Gudgodah, or Horhagidgad, Jotbath and other places. For it is said, De 10:7 that from there they came to Gudgodah and from Gudgodah to Jotbathah. These words "from there" are not to be understood of Mosera, but of Beeroth, as many learned men have long since noted on this passage.

268. The Israelites mourned for Aaron 30 days, Nu 20:29 this is the whole month when he died.

269. On the sixth month, the king of Arad, who dwelt on the southern part of Canaan, after hearing of the Israelites approach, went and fought against them taking many of them prisoners. For this they vowed, a vow to God and when they defeated them, they destroyed them and their cities. Because of this, that place was called Hormah, i.e. the place where that vow was made of utterly destroying the Canaanites. Nu 31:1-3 33:40

270. They left mount Hor, avoiding the plain country that led from Elath, and Eziongaber and the Red Sea straight into Edom. They went around Edom and came to the east side of it Nu 21:4 De 2:40 and there they made another camp.

35. They camped at Zalmonah, Nu 33:41 named for the brazen serpent set up there. The people murmured because of the fierce serpents sent among them by God. (Not a little worm, breeding in their flesh, as Fortunius Licentus, in his third book, de spontanco Viventium ortu. c. 51. imagines.) These poisoned them with their bite. They were healed by looking upon the image of a brazen serpent that God appointed to be set up on a pole. Nu 21:5-9 Jos 3:14 1Co 10:9

36. They camped at Punon. Nu 33:42

37. They camped at Oboth. Nu 21:10,33,43

38. They camped at Ijeabarim on the borders of Moab Nu 33:44 in that desert which lies to the east of Moab Nu 21:11 and is called the desert of Moab. De 2:8 For, they continued their march through that wilderness and came to the east of Moab. Jud 11:18

271. And when they left there to pass by the valley or brook of Zared, God forbade them to make war upon Moab. Nu 21:12 De 2:8,13

272. They passed over Zared, 38 years after the sending of their spies from Kadeshbarnea.

273. All those over 20 years old who rebelled against God there, had died. De 2:6

39. They camped at Dibongad Nu 33:45

40. They camped at Almondiblathaim, Nu 33:46 also called Bethdiblathaim, in the wilderness of Moab. Jer 48:22 Eze 6:14

2553a AM, 3262 JP, 1452 BC

274. When the Israelites were passing the borders of Moab, at Ar and approaching the country of the Ammonites, God forbade them to make any war upon the Ammonites. De 2:18,19,37 He commanded them to pass over the river Arnon: which at that time was the boundary between Moab and Ammon. De 2:24 Nu 21:13 They camped at Arnon and never entered the territory of Moab. De 2:24 Nu 21:13 Jud 11:18

275. Next they arrived at Beer, where the well was which the princes and nobles of the people, with Moses their law-giver, had dug with their staves. They came to Matthan, Nahaliel, Bamoth and the valley, which is in the country of the Moabites, at the entrance of the hill which looks toward the wilderness Nu 21:16-20 of Kedemoth. De 2:26 Here they camped.

41. They camped at Abarim opposite Nebo. Nu 33:47 As for Maanah and the other places, these were not camps, as Tremellius observes in Nu 2:12, but only places through which they passed on their march before Moses sent messengers to the Amorites. The Chaldee paraphrases does not take them for proper place names, but only as titles. They interpret them of the waters of the well (as the Rock, 1Co 10:4) which followed the Israelites to the brooks and from the brooks to the mountains and from the mountains to the valley of the Moabites.

276. From the wilderness of Kedemoth Moses sent messengers to Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon. He asked permission to pass peacefully through his borders (as the Edomites and Moabites had done) because that was a short cut to the fords of Jordan. When he denied them passage and made war upon them, the Israelites slew Sihon and possessed all his cities and dwelt in them. De 2:24-36 Nu 21:21-31 Jud 1:19-22

277. Moses sent his spies to Jazer which they conquered with the towns associated with it. They expelled the Amorites from there, from the river of Arnon which is the bound of Moab, Nu 21:13 22:36 to the brook of Jabbok which divides it from Ammon. De 3:16 Jos 12:2 13:10 They never meddled with the country lying next to the river Jabbok, neither with any of the lands belonging at that time to the children of Ammon of Moab, as God had commanded them. De 2:9 9:37 Therefore, 264 years later when the Ammonites complained that the Israelites had taken their land from Jabbok to Arnon and even to the brooks of the river Jordan, Jephthah correctly answered them that this was not true. They had not meddled with the lands, either of the Moabites or the Ammonites. When they had slain Sihon, they took all the lands belonging to the Amorites, from the river Arnon, to Jabbok, and possessed it as their own inheritance. Jud 11:13,15,22,23 It was also true that Sihon king of the Amorites had formerly taken from Vaheb king of the Moabites, Heshbon and all that country of his to Arnon. Nu 21:14 Also he had taken from the Ammonites, half their country even to Arnon which lay opposite Rabbah. De 3:11 All that land belonged formerly to the Ammonites and later was taken from the Amorites and assigned to the tribe of Gad to dwell in. Jos 13:25

278. When the children of Israel marched on their way to Bashan, Og king of Bashan, one of the giants, met and fought with them at Edrei. He and all his people were utterly destroyed. The Israelites possessed all his country which included 60 cities and all the land as far as Argob. De 3:1-11 Nu 21:33-35 Am 2:9

279. Jair, son of Manasseh seized all the country of Argob, stretching to the borders of the Geshurites and Mahacathites and called them Havothjair, after his own name.Nu 32:41 De 3:14 This Manasseh was the son of Segub, of the tribe of Judah. However, he was counted among the Manassites both in respect to the inheritance he had among them and also in reference to his grandmother. She was the daughter of Machir of the tribe of Manasseh. He was the father of Gilead who bore Segub the father of this Jair, to Hezron when he was 60 years old. 1Ch 2:21,22 This passage states that this Jair possessed 23 cities in the land of Gilead. He took Geshur and Aram (according to the best expositors) with the villages of Jair and Kenath with its villages, 60 cities in all. Nobah who was under him took Kenath with its villages and called it Nobah after his own name. Nu 32:42

280. After these victories the Israelites left the mountains of Abarim. They camped in the plain of Moab on this side of the ford of Jordan, which led to Jericho from Bethjeshimoth to Abelshittim, Nu 22:1 33:48,49

42. They camped at Shittim, Nu 25:1 or Abelshittim Nu 33:49. Here they stayed until Joshua lead them to the bank of Jordan. Jos 3:1

281. Balak the son of Zippor was the king of Moab. When he saw what the Israelites had done to the Amorites, he was afraid lest under the pretence of passing through his country, they would also take his kingdom from him. Therefore, after taking counsel with the princes of the Midianites who were his neighbours, he sent for Balaam the son of Beor. Balaam was a soothsayer from Mesopotamia. Balak asked him to come and curse the Israelites and promised him a large reward for his labour. He intended afterward to make war upon the Israelites. Nu 21:1-6 De 33:4 Jos 24:9

282. Balaam was warned of God and at first refused to come. When he was sent for a second time, he pleaded with God to let him go and went intending to curse Israel. God was offended by his intentions and made the dumb ass on which he was riding to speak in a man's voice to reprove his folly. Nu 22:7-35 2Pe 2:15,16

283. Balaam, offered sacrifices twice and attempted to curse Israel, to gratify Balak but being forced by the Spirit of God, he instead ended up blessing them. He foretold what good fortune was with them and what calamities should befall their enemies. Nu 23:1-24:25 De 23:5 Jos 24:10

284. By Balaam's advice, the women of Moab and Midian were sent to turn the Israelites away and to make them commit idolatry with them. Nu 25:1-3 31:16 De 4:3 Ps 106:28 Re 2:14 Therefore, God commanded Moses, first to hang all the leaders of this rebellion. He then gave orders to the judges, to put to death all who had joined themselves to Baalpeor. Finally, God sent a plague upon the people, in which 23,000 men died in one day. 1Co 10:8 This number plus those who were hanged and killed with the sword was 24,000. Nu 25:4,5,9

285. Phinehas the son of Eleazar killed Zimri, the son of Salu, chief of his father's family of the tribe of Simeon. He also slew Cozbi the daughter of Sur a prince of the Midianites. This appeased the wrath of God and the plague was ended. Nu 25:1-18 Ps 106:30 Therefore God assigned for ever the high priesthood to the house of Phinehas. He commanded them to make war against the Midianites. Nu 25:12,13,17,18

286. God commanded Moses and Eleazar to count the people 20 or more years old. This was done in the plain of Moab, near to Jordan, opposite Jericho. The number of men was 601,730 in addition to the Levites. 23,000 Levites were counted who were at least a month or more old. Moses received God's command for the division of the land of promise among the Israelites. Nu 26:1-63

287. The daughters of Zelophehad had their father's land divided among them because there was no male heir. Because of this situation, the law of inheritances was made. Nu 11:1-11

288. God told Moses that he was about to die and Joshua was to be his successor. Moses laid his hands upon him and gave him instructions. Nu 27:12-23 De 3:26-28 Various laws were then made. De 28:29,30

289. 12,000 of the Israelites lead by Phinehas, defeated the Midianites and slew all their males including their 5 princes and Sur the father of Cozbi. All were under the subjection of Sihon the Amorite while he lived. Balaam the wizard was killed when he should have returned into his country of Mesopotamia. Nu 24:25 Instead he stayed and died with the Midianites. Nu 31:1-8 Jos 13:21,22 From the females, only the virgins were spared. Nu 31:9-54

2553b AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC

290. The lands which belonged to Sihon and Og, Moses divided and gave to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half tribe of Manasseh. Nu 32:1-42 De 3:12-20 29:8 Jos 13:8-12 22:4 This was from the river Arnon, to mount Hermon (which is also called Shenir and Sirion, and Sion) and joins upon Anti-Lebanon, De 3:8,9 4:48 Jos 12:1 13:9,11

291. When the Israelites were going into the land of Canaan, God commanded them to drive out the Canaanites and destroy their idols. Nu 33:50-56 They were to divide the land west of Jordan among the nine remaining tribes and the other half tribe of Manasseh. Nu 34:1-29 Of the 48 cities of the Levites and the 6 cities of refuge, Nu 35:1-34, three were assigned by Moses on the east of Jordan. De 4:41-43

292. Moses addressed Israel on the 5th day of the 11th month (Saturday, February 20th) in the 40th year after their departure out of Egypt in the plain of Moab. This is recorded in De 1:1-27:26.

293. Moses, with the elders of Israel, commanded the people that after their passage over Jordan they should set up large stones. These were to be plastered and the ten commandments written on them. They were to speak the blessings from Mount Gerizim and the curses from Mount Ebal. De 27:1-26 He exhorted them to observe the law of God by setting before them the benefits of obedience and the miseries that would happen to them for their disobedience. De 28:1-68

294. God commanded Moses to renew the covenant between God and them, and their children in mount Horeb. Moses again attempted to persuade them to keep that covenant hedged in by all the blessings and curses which would accrue to the keepers or breakers of it. De 29:1-29 He gave a promise of pardon and deliverance, if at any time, when they broke it, they should repent. He stated that God had declared his will to them so that no one who broke the law should plead ignorance of the law. De 30:1-20

295. When Moses wrote this law, he gave it to the priests the sons of Levi and the elders of the people to be observed. When he finished the book of the law, he ordered it to be put in the ark. De 31:1-30 The same day he wrote his song and taught it to the children of Israel. De 32:1-52

296. Just before Moses died, he blessed every tribe with a prophecy, except the tribe of Simeon. His last will and testament is contained in De 32:1-52

297. In the 12th month of this year, Moses left the plain of Moab and climbed up Mount Nebo which was a part of the country of Abarim. From the top of it facing Jericho, he beheld all the land of promise and then died at the age of 120 years. Nu 27:12,13 De 3:23-29, 32:49,50 34:1-5 31:2-4,7 Of this time he spent 40 years less a month in governing the people of Israel. This is confirmed by Josephus, in the end of his 4th book of antiquities. He states that Moses died on the first day of the last month of the year. The Macedonians called the month Dystrus but the Hebrews called it Adar. This fits better with the account of historians who wrote shortly thereafter than with the tradition of the Jews of later times. These historians say that he died upon the 7th of Adar, as in Sedar Olam Rabba, c. 10. in his hryjp book of the death of Moses. In the preface of Maimonides to the book, called Misnaioth this is mentioned also. In the calendars of the Jews of this time this appears. They still celebrate the memorial of his death by a solemn fast on this day.

298. God moved the body of Moses from the place where he died, into a valley of the land of Moab, opposite Bethpeor and buried him there. No one knows where the grave of Moses is to this day. De 34:6 This valley was in the land of Sihon king of the Amorites which the Israelites took from him. De 4:46 Bethpeor was given to the Reubenites. Jos 13:20 Therefore, Moses is said to have been buried in the land of Moab. Likewise De 29:1 the covenant is said to have been renewed in the land of Moab. It is to be understood that this land formerly did belong to the Moabites but was recently taken from them by Sihon king of the Amorites. Nu 21:26 This land was now possessed by the Israelites.

299. The archangel Michael Jude 1:9 disputed with the devil over the body of Moses. The Devil wanted to expose the body that it might become an object of idolatry to the people of Israel. Chrysostrome in his 1st Homily on Matthew and Thodores, on Deuteronomy, Quest. 43. and Procopius Gazans, on Deuteronomy and others state this. Though no where do we find that the Jews ever gave themselves to the worshipping of relics. This dispute between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses is found in the apocryphal book called "The Assumption of Moses". We read this in Origen peziazcat, lib 3. c. 2., in Gelasius Cyricenu, in the Acts of the Council of Nice, part. 1. c. 20. and similar stories are found in xwba of Rabbi Nathan.

300. The Israelites mourned for Moses in the land of Moab, 30 days for the whole 12th month. De 34:8

301. Here ends the Pentateuch, or the five books of Moses, containing the history of 2552 and a half years from the beginning of the world. The book of Joshua begins with the 41st year after the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt.

2553c AM, 3263 JP, 1451 BC

302. The first month.

303. God confirmed the leadership of Joshua. He sent spies from Shittim to the city of Jericho, which were hidden by Rahab in an inn. These were secretly sent away when they were searched for. They hid three days in the mountain and then returned to Joshua. Jos 2:1-24

304. Joshua commanded the people that in addition to the manna which had not yet ceased, they should take other provisions with them. In three days they were to pass over Jordan Jos 1:10,11

305. The next morning, they left Shittim and came to the river Jordan. They camped there that night. Jos 3:1

306. Three days later they were instructed to provide food for the journey. The people were commanded to sanctify and prepare themselves to pass over Jordan on the next day. Jos 3:2-5

307. On the 10th day of the first month, (Friday, April 30th), the same day that the Pascal lamb was to be chosen out of the flock, Joshua (a type of Christ) led the Israelites through the river Jordan into the promised land of Canaan (a type of that heavenly country.) God divided the waters and they passed through the river dryshod. Normally in that season, the waters would overflow the banks. For a memorial of this miraculous passage, Joshua set up twelve stones in the very channel of Jordan. They took another twelve stones from out of the middle of the river and set them up at Gilgal, where they next camped. Jos 3:1-4:24

308. The next day, Joshua renewed the use of circumcision in Gilgal, which had been neglected for 40 years. There the people rested and stayed until they were well again. Jos 5:2-9

309. On the 14th day of the first month (Tuesday, May 4th) in the evening, the Israelites celebrated their first passover in the land of Canaan. Jos 5:10

310. The next day was passover. (Wednesday, May 5th) They ate of the produce of the land of Canaan, unleavened bread and roasted grain. The manna stopped the very day after they began to live off of the produce of the land. Never again did the children of Israel see manna. That year they lived on the fruits of the land of Canaan. Jos 5:11,12

311. Our Lord Jesus, the Captain of his Father's Host, appeared to Joshua, (the type of Jesus), before Jericho with a drawn sword in his hand. Jesus there promised to defend his people. Jos 5:13-15

312. The Ark of God was carried around Jericho for seven days. On the 7th day, the walls of Jericho fell down flat when the priests blew their trumpets. The city was taken and utterly destroyed. All were killed except for Rahab and her family. Jos 6:1-27 Later she married Salmon of the tribe of Judah and they had a son called Boaz. Mt 1:5

313. For the sacrilege of Achan God abandoned Israel and they were defeated at Ai. Achan's sin was determined by the casting of lots and he was found guilty. God was appeased when he and his family and cattle were stoned and burnt with fire. Jos 7:1-26 Ai was taken by an ambush and utterly destroyed. 12,000 men of Ai were killed in the battle. Jos 8:1-29

314. According to the law, in Mount Ebal an altar was erected for sacrifices. The ten commandments were engraved on it. The blessings and cursings were repeated in Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim. The book of the law was read to all the people. Jos 8:30-35

315. The kings of Canaan were stirred by this great success of the Israelites. They all united against Israel except the Gibeonites. These craftily found a way to save their own lives by making a league with Israel. However later they were assigned to do the work associated with the house of God. Jos 9:1-27

316. When Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, with the kings of Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Debir heard that Gibeon allied themselves with Israel, they united their forces and besieged Gibeon. When Joshua raised the siege, he pursued those five kings slaughtering their troops as far as Azekah and Makkedah. At this time the sun stood still over Gibeon and the moon over the valley of Ajalon for almost a whole day until the Israelites were fully avenged of their enemies. Jos 10:1-14 On this account Laurentius Codomannu observes two things:

317. First, since Ajalon was less than a mile west of Gibeon, it is very likely that the moon was then past the full and close to a new moon.

318. Second, since both those great lights stopped and started together, the astronomical account of this is not invalidated by this event. Even as in music, the harmony is not broken, nor do the voices clash if they all rest at the same time and then begin again, each man playing his part until the end of the piece.

319. The five kings hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah and Joshua commanded the entrance to be blocked with stones and a guard set up until the enemies were defeated. After the enemies fled into fortified cities and when all the army was safely returned to Joshua at Makkedah, the stones were removed. The five kings were taken from the cave and each of the captains of the host was bidden to put his foot upon their necks. The kings were hung on five trees until evening and then their bodies were thrown into the same cave and the mouth of the cave blocked with stones. Jos 10:16,17

320. And thus ended that most busy year of the world, 2553. In the first six months Moses conquered all that land east of Jordan. The rest of the year Joshua conquered most of the land west of Jordan. In the middle of the year the manna ceased and the people of Israel began to live off the food in the land of Canaan.

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had done for centuries, when Italy and Spain were in its hands. Thanks to it, Italy, that mother of nations, of poets, of genius, and of the arts, now knows not how to read."--(Speech of Victor Hugo in the French Legislative Assembly.) [Back]

[3] A traveller who visited Rome in 1817, speaking of Cardinal Gonsalez, the minister of the then reigning pontiff, and humane